Chapters from my “Deacons and Phoebe” Essay
Here are links to most of the chapters of my 2014 research paper entitled “The Roles of Diakonoi, Male and Female, in the Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Church (c. 40–120) with Special Reference to Phoebe of Cenchrea.” I have edited and adapted the chapters for my website.
The First Century Church and the Ministry of Women
Part 1: Phoebe and the Ministry of Women
Part 2: Ancient Latin Texts in which Phoebe is regarded as an official deacon
Part 3: Phoebe’s Role in Paul’s Mission to Spain
Part 4: Deacons in the Philippian Church and Phoebe
Part 5: Deacons in the Ephesian Church and Phoebe as Patron
Part 6: Deacons and Women in the Apostolic Fathers
Part 7: Summary and Conclusion
Anon., Didascalia Apostolorum, R. Hugh Connolly (transl.) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929), 147-148.
Anon., “Apostolic Constitutions”, James Donaldson (transl.). From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 7. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe (eds) (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/07152.htm>.
Chrysostom, John, “Homily 14 on Acts”;“Homily 30 on Romans”; “Homily 31 on Romans”; “Homily 13 on Philippians”; “Homily 11 on First Timothy”, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. 11 and vol. 13. Philip Schaff (ed.) (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1889.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.
Clement of Rome, “The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians”, Charles H. Hoole (transl.) (1885), Early Christian Writings <http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/1clement-hoole.html>
Clement of Rome, “The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians”, J.B. Lightfoot (transl.) (no date) Early Christian Writings
Cyril of Jerusalem, “Catechetical Lecture XVII”, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 7, Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (eds) (T&T Clark: Edinburgh) <http://ecmarsh.com/fathers/npnf2/NPNF2-07/Npnf2-07-22.htm#P2364_670434>
Irenaeus, “Against Heresies”, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 1, Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe (eds) (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0103312.htm>
Martyr, Justin, “First Apology, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 1. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe (eds) (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0126.htm>
Pliny the Younger, The Letters of Pliny the Younger, 10.96-97. Betty Radice (transl.) (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1969), 293-295.
Tertullian, “The Prescription against Heretics”, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 3, Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe (eds) (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0311.htm>
Various authors, The Apostolic Fathers, Greek Texts and English Translations (3rd edition), edited and translated by Michael W. Holmes (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007) Works cited include First Clement, The Didache, Ignatius’ letters, and Polycarp’s letter to the Philippians.
Greek-English Lexicons and Dictionaries
Bauer, Walter, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Second Edition (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1958)
Bauer, Walter, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Third Edition, revised and edited by F.W Danker, [BDAG] (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000)
Beekes, Robert, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Vol. 1 (Leiden: Brill, 2010)
Beyer, Hermann W., Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Vol. 2, Gerhard Kittel (ed.), Geoffrey W. Bromiley (transl.) (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964)
Lampe, G.W.H., A Patristic Greek Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961, 1968)
Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert, A Greek-English Lexicon, Ninth Edition, revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie, [LSJ] (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996)
Heimgartner, Martin (Halle), “Diakonos” in Brill’s Encyclopedia of the Ancient World, Vol. 4 (Leiden: Brill, 2004), 345-347.
Louw, Johannes P., and Nida, Eugene A., Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains (New York: United Bible Societies, 1989) (Internet Archive)
Perschbacher, Wesley J., (ed.) The New Analytical Greek Lexicon (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1990)
Thayer, Joseph Henry, Thayer’s Greek Lexicon (New York: American Book Co., 1889)
Alikin, Valeriy Alexandrovich, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering: Origin, Development and Content of the Christian Gathering in the First to Third Centuries (Diss. Leiden, 2009)
Barclay, William, The Letters to the Philippians, Colossians and Thessalonians (The New Daily Study Bible) (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1975, 2003)
Belleville, L. L., Women Leaders and the Church (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2000.)
Bird, Michael F., Bourgeois Babes, Bossy Wives, and Bobby Haircuts: A Case for Gender Equality in Ministry (Zondervan, Kindle edition, 2012-12-25)
Blomberg, Craig L., “Women in Ministry: A Complementarian Perspective”, Two Views of Women in Ministry, James Beck (ed.) (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005)
Bornkamm, Günther, Paul (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995)
Bruce, F.F., An Expanded Paraphrase of the Epistles of Paul (Exeter: The Paternoster Press, 1981)
Caird, George B., The Apostolic Age (Essex and London: Duckworth Press, 1975)
Campbell, Joan Cecelia, Phoebe: Patron and Emissary (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2009)
Clarke, Andrew D., Serve the Community of the Church: Christians as Leaders and Ministers (Cambridge: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2000)
Cohick, Lynn H., Women in the World of the Earliest Christians: Illuminating Ancient Ways of Life (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009)
Collins, John N., “The Embattled Deacon Words”, The Pastoral Review 3.3 (May 2007): 46-51.
____________ Deacons and the Church: Making Connections Between Old and New (Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing, 2002)
____________“The Mediatorial Aspect of Paul’s Role as Diakonos”, Australian Biblical Review 40 (1992): 34-44.
____________ Diakonia: Reinterpreting the Ancient Sources (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990)
Cooper, Kate, The Virgin and the Bride: Idealized Womanhood in Late Antiquity (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1966)
Cotter, Wendy, “Women’s Authority Roles in Paul‘s Churches: Countercultural or Conventional?”, Novum Testamentum 36:4 (1994), 364
Cox Miller, Patricia (ed), Women in Early Christianity: Translations from the Greek Texts (Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 2005)
deSilva, David, Honor, Patronage, Kinship and Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2000)
____________ “Patronage and Reciprocity: The Context of Grace in the New Testament”, Ashland Theological Journal 31 (1999): 32-84.
Dodd, C.H., The Epistle to the Romans (The Moffat New Testament Commentary) ed. James Moffatt (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1932)
Dunn, James D.G., Romans 9-16 (Word Biblical Commentary, Vol. 38B) (Dallas: Word, 1988)
____________ Unity & Diversity in the New Testament: An Inquiry into the Character of Earliest Christianity (Westminster Press, 1977)
Ellis, E.E., “Paul’s Co-workers”, Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, Gerald Hawthorne and Ralph Martin (eds) (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 183-189.
Fiorenza, Elizabeth Schüssler, “Missionaries, Apostles, Coworkers: Romans 16 and the Reconstruction of Women’s Early Christian History”, Word & World 6.4 (1986): 420-433.
Giles, Kevin, Patterns of Ministry Among the First Christians (Sydney: Collins Dove Publishers, 1989)
Gill, Deborah M. Gill and Cavaness, Barbara, God’s Women—Then and Now (Springfield, Grace & Truth, 2004, 2009) (Kindle Locations 862-870).
Gooder, Paula, “Diakonia in the New Testament: A Dialogue with John N. Collins”, Ecclesiology 3.1 (2006): 33-56.
Gray, Patrick, Opening Paul’s Letters: A Reader’s Guide to Genre and Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2012)
Harrington, Daniel J., The Church According to the New Testament: What the Wisdom and Witness of Early Christianity Teach Us Today (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc, 2001)
Head, Peter M., “N.T. Wright on Phoebe”, Letter Carriers and the Pauline Tradition website (27.11.2012)
____________ “Named Letter Carriers among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri,” JSNT 31.3 (2009): 279-300, 297.
Horsley, G. H. R., ed., “Addenda”, New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Volume 5 (Ryde, NSW: Macquarie University Ancient History Documentary Research Centre, 1989), 135-150, 149.
____________ “122. Sophia, ‘the second Phoibe'”, New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Volume 4 (Ryde, NSW: Macquarie University Ancient History Documentary Research Centre, 1987), 239-244.
Jewett, Robert, Romans: A Commentary (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007)
____________ “Paul, Phoebe, and the Spanish Mission”, The Social World of Formative Christianity and Judaism: In Tribute to Howard Clark Kee (Philadelphia: FortressPress, 1988), 142-161.
Keener, Craig S., Paul, Women and Wives: Marriage and Women’s Ministry in the Letters of Paul (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1992, 2009)
Keyes, C.W. “The Greek Letter of Introduction”, American Journal of Philology 56 (1935): 28-48.
LaCelle-Peterson, Kristina, Liberating Tradition: Women’s Identity and Vocation in Christian Perspective (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008)
Llewelyn, Stephen, New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity, Volume 7 (Ryde, NSW: Macquarie University Ancient History Documentary Research Centre, 1994)
McCabe, Elizabeth, A Reexamination of Phoebe as a “Diakonos” and “Prostatis”: Exposing the Inaccuracies of English Translations (2009) (on the Society of Biblical Literature website)
McCarty, V.K., Phoebe as an Example of Female Authority Exercised in the Early Church, presented at The Sofia Institute, Third Annual Conference, Union Theological Seminary Campus, New York City, 2010. <http://www.academia.edu/1132713/_Phoebe_as_an_Example_of_Female_Authority_Exercised_in_the_Early_Church_by_VK_McCarty>
Madigan, Kevin and Osiek, Carolyn (eds and transl.), Ordained Women in the Early Church: A Documentary History (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2005)
Martimort, Aimé Georges, Deaconesses: An Historical Study (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1986) Originally in French: Les Diaconesses: Essai Historique (Rome: C.L.V. Edizioni Liturgiche, 1982)
Mathew, Susan, Women in the Greetings of Rom 16:1-16: A Study of Mutuality and Women’s Ministry in the Letter to the Romans, (Durham University, Durham E-Theses, 2010)
Massey, Lesly F., Women and the New Testament: An Analysis of Scripture in the Light of New Testament Era Culture (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1989)
Meeks, Wayne, The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003)
Meinardus, Otto F. A., “Paul’s Missionary Journey to Spain: Tradition and Folklore”, The Biblical Archaeologist, 41.2 (June 1978): 61-63
Moo, Douglas J., The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996)
Morris, Leon, The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988)
Olsen, Jeannine, Deacons and Deaconesses throughout the Centuries (St Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2005)
Osiek, Carolyn, “Diakonos and Prostatis: Women’s Patronage in Early Christianity”, HTS Theological Studies 61.1 & 2 (2005): 346-370
Osiek, Carolyn, and Macdonald, Margaret Y., A Woman’s Place: House Churches in Earliest Christianity (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2006)
Taylor, Joan E., “Spiritual Mothers: Philo on the Women Therapeutae”, Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 23 (2002): 37-63.
Trevett, Christine, Christian Women and the Time of the Apostolic Fathers (AD c.80-160): Corinth, Rome and Asia Minor (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2006)
Vyhmeister, Nancy J., “Deaconesses in History and in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church”, Andrews University Seminary Studies 43.1 (2005): 133-158. <http://www.auss.info/auss_publication_file.php?pub_id=1098&journal=1&type=pdf>
Wallace, Daniel B., Did Priscilla “Teach” Apollos? An Examination of the Meaning of ἐκτίθημι in Acts 18:26 (Biblical Studies Press, 1999)
White, John L., “Light From Ancient Letters”, Foundations and Facets: New Testament, Robert W. Funk (ed.) (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986), 186-220.
Winter, Bruce W., Seek the Welfare of the City: Christians as Benefactors and Citizens (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994)
Witherington III, Ben, Women in the Earliest Churches (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)