Added May 16, 2023: Because the following has been misinterpreted by some readers, let me state upfront that, rather than relying on Xenophon and Aristotle, who were not influenced by praus–words in the Septuagint (the ancient Greek version of the Old Testament) and who did not write in Koine Greek, a better way of understanding the Christian virtue meekness, or gentleness, is to see how the New Testament writers and Apostolic Fathers used and understood these words. I’ve quoted from some of these early Christian writings in the body and footnotes of this article. I’ve also quoted from early Jewish authors who wrote in Koine Greek.
Meekness in Discussions on Femininity and Masculinity
In a previous article, I looked at all the New Testament verses that use the Greek noun and adjective that refer to meekness: prautēs and praus. These words are used in Matthew’s Gospel and by the letter writers Paul, James, and Peter. In Matthew 11:29, for example, Jesus is quoted as saying of himself, “I am meek (praus) and humble in heart.”
In my previous article, I argued that meekness was not an especially feminine virtue despite how more than few people interpret “a gentle (praus) and quiet spirit” in 1 Peter 3:4. But I’ve recently come across some Christians who use their concept of praus to promote a masculine expression of Christianity. These Christians refer to blog posts that emphasise a nuance of “strength” in the words “meekness” (prautēs) and “meek” (praus).
Dozens of blog posts written by Christians mention warhorses while attempting to explain (revise?) the meaning of praus. The argument in these blog posts is that praus has a military association and has a sense of might or toughness. These ideas appeal to some Christian men.
For example, a website with the name Praus makes these statements.
“The word praus comes from ancient military training. The Greek army would find the wildest horses in the mountains and bring them in. After months of training, they sorted the horses into categories: some were discarded, others were put into ordinary duty. The fewest of all graduated and were put into service. When a horse passed the conditioning required for service, its state was described as praus.”
Does the word praus come from, or originate with, ancient military training? If it does, I can’t find ancient evidence for it.
These thoughts written by Sam Whatley are posted on a website called River Region’s Journey.
“The Greek word praus (prah-oos) was used to define a horse trained for battle. Wild stallions were brought down from the mountains and broken for riding. Some were used to pull wagons, some were raced, and the best were trained for warfare. They retained their fierce spirit, courage, and power, but were disciplined to respond to the slightest nudge or pressure of the rider’s leg. They could gallop into battle at 35 miles per hour and come to a sliding stop at a word. They were not frightened by arrows, spears, or torches. Then they were said to be meeked. … To be meeked was to be taken from a state of wild rebellion and made completely loyal to, and dependent upon, one’s master.”
Other articles on other websites make very similar statements, there’s plenty of plagiarising going on.
Xenophon on “Meek” (Praus)
None of the numerous blog posts I visited cites ancient sources for the claims about meek warhorses, but a few mention Xenophon’s name. Xenophon (c. 430 BC–354 BC) was an Athenian military leader, historian, and philosopher. He loved all things equestrian and wrote two treatises on the art of horsemanship.
Xenophon lived centuries before the time the New Testament was written and he wrote in Attic Greek, not in Koine Greek which is the original language of the New Testament. Language evolves over time, and how an Athenian used Attic words in the early fourth century BC is not necessarily the same as how Jewish Christians used Koine words in the first century AD. Nevertheless, let’s look at how Xenophon used praus and its close cognates.
I found several passages where Xenophon uses prau– words. The first three passages are about gently training horses (On Horsemanship 9.3, 9.5, 9.10), the fourth is about gentle farm animals (Economics 15.4), the fifth passage is about taming a growling sheepdog (Memorabilia 2.3.9), the sixth passage is about cosseted, tame fish (Anabasis 1.4.9), and the seventh is about amiability between soldiers and between warhorses (Cyropaedia 2.1.29).
On Horsemanship 9:3
“Accordingly, at the moment of mounting, the rider should take care to worry [the horse] as little as possible; and when he is mounted, he should let him stand still longer than is otherwise usual, and then direct him to go by the ‘most gentle’ (πρᾳοτάτοις/ praotatois) aids. Then let him begin at a very slow pace and increase the speed with the same gentle help, so that the horse will not be aware of the transition to a quicker motion.”
On Horsemanship 9:5
“If you want to correct a spirited horse when he is going too fast, do not pull him suddenly, but quietly check him with the bit, ‘soothing’ (πραΰνοντα/ praunonta) him, not forcing him, to a quiet pace.”
On Horsemanship 9:10
“It should also be known that a horse can be taught ‘to be calm’ (πραΰνεσθαι/ praunesthai) by a chirp with the lips and to be roused by a cluck with the tongue. And if from the first you use with the cluck aids to calm him (τὰ πραέα), and with the chirp aids to rouse him, the horse will learn to rouse himself at the chirp and ‘to calm down’ (πραΰνεσθαι/ praunesthai) at the cluck.”
In Xenophon’s Economics, the character Isomachus makes this comment about domesticated farm animals, “As you know, we call those creatures noble that are beautiful, great, and helpful, and yet gentle (πραέα/ praea) towards men.”
“Had you a sheep dog that was friendly to the shepherds, but growled when you [the master/ owner] came near him, it would never occur to you to get angry, but you would try ‘to tame’ (πραΰνειν/ praunein) him by kindness.”
“After this Cyrus marched four stages, twenty parasangs, to the Chalus river, which is a plethrum in width and full of large, tame (πραέων/ praeōn) fish; these fish the Syrians regarded as gods, and they would not allow anyone to harm them, or the doves, either.”
“Cyrus also took care that [soldiers] should never come to luncheon or to dinner unless they had had a sweat. For he would get them into a sweat by taking them out hunting; or he would contrive such sports as would make them sweat; or again, if he happened to have some business or other to attend to, he so conducted it that they should not come back without having had a sweat. For this he considered conducive to their enjoying their meals, to their health, and to their being able to endure hardships, and he thought that hardships conduced to their being ‘more reasonable’ (πρᾳοτέρους/ praoterous) toward one another, for even horses that work together stand ‘more quietly’ (πρᾳοτέρους/ praoterous) together. At any rate, those who are conscious that they have been well drilled are certainly more courageous in the face of the enemy.”
From these passages, we can see that prau– words may be translated into English as “most gentle,” “soothing,” to calm down/ be calm,” “gentle,” “to tame,” “tame,” and “more reasonable/ more quietly.”
I could not find any ancient source that mentions or alludes to implicit ideas of strength or fierceness in the word praus or a source that indicates an intrinsic, or original, military sense. I could not find these ideas in modern books either, with one exception. In The New Testament Commentary – Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, written by Max Anders and published by Holman in 1999, the author makes this comment:
“Warhorses in the ancient world went into battle trained to protect their master. They were under the total and instantaneous control of their rider. War horses were described as being meek. Their strength was under total control.” (Google Books)
Unfortunately, even in this book, a Bible commentary, there is no citation of an ancient source.
(Update: The meek warhorse idea is also in the book Praus: A Parable for Winning the War Within by Hunter Lambeth.)
Good warhorses are strong and fearless in battle but also compliant and tame with their riders and handlers. In Cyropaedia, Xenophon uses the word praus for warhorses, but not in connection with toughness or in connection with fighting battles against enemies. Rather the context is horses standing calmly with other horses when not in battle.
Aristotle on Praus and People
Xenophon seems to have mostly used prau– words in the context of animals: for people gently training animals and for tame or domesticated animals. But these words were commonly used in ancient Greek texts, including the New Testament, to describe the mild and gentle nature of people in relationships with other people.
Aristotle wrote around the same time as Xenophon and in Attic Greek. In Rhetoric 3.2 (1380a), he uses prau– words several times in a discussion where he contrasts anger with the meekness or mildness of men, and he defines “making mild” as “the quieting and appeasing of anger.”
In Nicomachean Ethics 4.1–5 (1125b–1126a), he says that meekness, or a mild temper (πραότης/ praotēs), is the mean, or midpoint, between anger and an unnamed opposite extreme. For Aristotle, being praus was not about strength but about humility. Because of this humble element, he did not always regard meekness as a virtue as Christians do, and he thought that meekness had a tendency towards “deficiency.” Nevertheless, he observed,
“Now we praise a man who feels anger on the right grounds and against the right persons, and also in the right manner and at the right moment and for the right length of time. He may then be called gentle-tempered (πρᾶος/ praos), if we take gentleness (πραότης/ praotēs) to be a praiseworthy quality—for ‘gentle’ (πρᾶος/ praos) really denotes a calm temper, not led by emotion but only becoming angry in such a manner, for such causes and for such a length of time as principle may ordain although the quality is thought rather to err on the side of defect, since the ‘gentle-tempered man’ (πρᾶος/ praos) is not prompt to seek redress for injuries, but rather inclined to forgive them.”
Jesus somewhat fits with this description. However, unlike Aristotle, Christians see humility and forgiveness as good things, not defects.
Praus in Early Jewish Literature
Looking at how Xenophon and Aristotle used praus has limited value if we want to understand how the word was used in the Greek New Testament. It is more relevant to see how Jewish authors writing in Greek used praus in literature that is roughly contemporaneous with the New Testament. Here’s a sample.
In 2 Maccabees 15:12, which was written sometime between 150 and 120 BCE, Onias the High Priest is presented as “virtuous, good, modest in all things, gentle (πρᾶον/ praon) of manners, and well-spoken.
In the Testament of Abraham 1.3, possibly written in the first century CE, it is said that Abraham lived all his life “in quietness (hēsuchia) and gentleness (πραότητι/ praotēti) . . .” (cf. 1 Peter 3:4).
In Against Appion 1.29 §267, Josephus (b. 37 CE) used the word praoteroi/ πρᾳότεροι to describe the attitudes of people who had been badly treated by the king of Egypt; they had a reason to be angry and hateful but had rather grown “milder.”
In Jewish Antiquities 19.3 §330, Josephus describes Herod Agrippa’s manner as “mild” (πραῢς/ praus). He then explains how Agrippa is praus: he was “equally liberal to all men. He was humane to foreigners, and made them sensible of his liberality. He was in like manner rather of a ‘gentle and compassionate’ (chrēstos kai sympathēs) temper.” In §333, Herod Agrippa addresses a man who had slandered him and speaks to him “quietly (ērema) and gently (πρᾴως/ praōs).”
In these examples, gentleness or mildness is a virtue of both notable, respected leaders and of oppressed, disadvantaged people. And there seems to be a sense of calm dignity in their mildness. I can’t see that the analogy of warhorses adds anything to our understanding of praus words in these passages.
“Meek” (praus) implies neither weakness nor strength
Gentleness and courage are not mutually exclusive—meekness is not to be likened to weakness—and this is evident in the way the word is used in the New Testament. (See here.) On the other hand, there is no implicit sense of strength in the word praus. And, unlike what the “meek warhorses” blog posts say, Xenophon does not indicate that praus has a military origin or military association any more than it has a farming origin or association (cf. Econ. 15.4). Moreover, there is no hint of either association in how the New Testament authors use prau– words.
Prau– words are not uncommon in ancient Greek. They typically refer to a gentle, mild, or regulated temper, and in the context of animals, including horses, praus typically means “tame.” For Christians, the trait of meekness, like the traits of humility and submissiveness, are positive virtues. And while self-restraint may well be required on occasion, these three traits, plus a readiness to forgive, are essentially about putting aside or relinquishing power in relationships. Praus is not about exerting strength or maintaining power in relationships.
Furthermore, people with little or no strength can be meek. Many of the original audience of the Sermon on the Mount, for example, those who heard Jesus say, “The meek will inherit the earth,” had little political power or social clout (cf. Psalm 37:1–11). (See the postscripts for more on Matt. 5:5 and Psa. 37.)
Meekness is a quality of mild-mannered and self-controlled gentlemen and gentlewomen, and it is a quality of animals that are tame or gentle with humans. It is neither a masculine nor a feminine virtue, but is one of many Christian virtues. Being praus is not an expression of manliness or machismo, and it is the antithesis of arrogance, anger, and aggression.
Ignatius, bishop of Antioch and a native Greek speaker, understood what praus meant. In around AD 110, while on his way to Rome to face martyrdom, he wrote about meekness, humility, and non-retaliation towards antagonistic unbelievers.
In response to their anger, be gentle [or meek: praeis]
In response to their boasts, be humble
In response to their slander, offer prayers
In response to their errors, be steadfast in the faith
In response to their cruelty, be civilized
Do not be eager to imitate them
Let us show by our forbearance that we are their brothers and sisters
And let us be eager to be imitators of the Lord … (Ign. Eph. 10:2–3a).
(I hope to find the exact source, assuming there is one, of the “meeked warhorses” claim in the blog posts. If you know the ancient source, please let me know so I can add it to this article.)
 Prautēs is the noun (“meekness/ gentleness”) and praus is the adjective (“meek/ gentle”). Prautēs is pronounced “prah-ee-tis” (or “prah-oo-tays” with Erasmian pronunciation). Praus is pronounced “prah-ees.”
 Xenophon uses the related adverb in Anabasis 1.5.14: “Clearchus, however, was angry, because, when he had barely escaped being stoned to death, Proxenus was talking ‘lightly’ (πράως/praōs) of his grievance …” (Perseus Digital Library)
 “On Horsemanship 9:3” in Xenophon in Seven Volumes, Vol. 7. E. C. Marchant and G. W. Bowersock, transl. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1925) (Perseus Digital Library)
 “On Horsemanship 9:5” in Xenophon in Seven Volumes, Vol. 7. E. C. Marchant and G. W. Bowersock, transl. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1925) (Perseus Digital Library)
 “On Horsemanship 9:10” in Xenophon in Seven Volumes, Vol. 7. E. C. Marchant and G. W. Bowersock, transl. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1925) (Perseus Digital Library)
 I include the following excerpt that mentions the tractability of warhorses, but Xenophon did not use prau– words here: “… you must see that the horses get enough food to stand hard work, since horses unfit for their work can neither overtake nor escape [in battle]. You must see that they are ‘docile’ (euchrēstoi: serviceable, useful, tractable), because disobedient animals assist the enemy more than their own side.”
“On the Cavalry Commander 1.3″ in Xenophon in Seven Volumes, Vol. 7. E. C. Marchant and G. W. Bowersock (transl.) (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1925) (Perseus Digital Library)
 “Nicomachean Ethics 5.4 (1125b.25-1126a.1)” in Aristotle in 23 Volumes, Vol. 19, H. Rackham (transl.) (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, 1934) (Perseus Digital Library here and here.
As another example of usage, Thucydides, an Athenian general and historian writing in the 400s BC, speaks well of the moderate behaviour and gentleness (πραότητα) displayed by Brasidas, a Spartan officer (4.108.2-3).
 Testament of Abraham, Montague Rhodes James, volume 2 of Texts and Studies: Contributions to Biblical and Patristic Literature, J. Armitage Robinson (ed) (Cambridge University Press, 1892), 77. (Archive.org) An English translation is on New Advent, here.
 Deirdre J. Good writes that in Hellenistic Greek,
… leaders are called praos. Religious pioneers, statesmen, politicians and governors either commend themselves as meek or receive this accolade from others. As the philosopher Isocrates [To Nicocles 23] and the historian Josephus show, demonstrating compassion toward the less fortunate indicates that a praos man is likely to belong to nobility. Good, Jesus the Meek King (Harrisburg PA: Trinity Press, 1999), 5.
 I’ve used The Apostolic Fathers, Greek Texts and English Translations (3rd edition), edited and translated by Michael W. Holmes (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007), 190–191, for this quotation but have formatted the lines differently.
Like Ignatius, the author(s) of the Didache (the circa AD 100 church manual) also understood meekness:
But be meek (praus), since the meek shall inherit the earth. Be patient, merciful, innocent, quiet and good, trembling at the words that you have heard. Do not elevate yourself, or let your soul become overconfident. Your soul must not be joined with the lofty, but abide with the just and lowly.
Didache 3.7 (my translation)
© Margaret Mowczko 2020
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Postscript: August 31, 2021
Kenneth Bailey on praus (Greek) and ׳ānǐ (Hebrew)
Kenneth Bailey explains one difference between praus and the Hebrew word that is sometimes translated into Greek as praus.
The Hebrew word, ׳ānǐ, (poor/ humble) has to do with obedience in accepting God’s guidance. The Greek term praus (“meek”) refers not to a person in the presence of God but rather describes relationships between people.
Bailey, Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels, p.73.
It is likely that some Jewish authors writing in Greek used praus with the sense of ׳ānǐ for want of a closer synonym, as in Matthew 5:5. Matthew 5:5 alludes to Psalm 37:11, and the translators of the Christian Standard Bible have made the sensible decision to translate both the Hebrew word in Psalm 37:11 and the Greek word in Matthew 5:5 into English as “humble.” They have translated praus in Matthew 11:29 as “lowly.”
Postscript: August 26, 2022
Jordan Peterson on Meekness and Swords
Jordan Peterson has said in a talk on the Bible, and in various interviews (such as this one), that the meek, in the context of “the meek will inherit the earth,” are “those who have swords, and know how to use them, but choose to keep them sheathed.” He seems to have been influenced by the sometimes unhelpful HELPS Word-Studies.
Peterson doesn’t base his interpretation on the Greek of Matthew 5:5, or on the original Hebrew in Psalm 37:11, but on what makes sense to him. Even though he doesn’t read Greek or Hebrew, he thinks his interpretation is much better than what it says in English translations. Furthermore, the way he elaborates on his interpretation makes a mockery of the message of Psalm 37 and Jesus’s Sermon on the Mount, especially considering that many people in Jesus’s audience had very little political or social power.
Ignatius, quoted at the end of my article above, and the authors of the Didache, quoted at the end of the footnotes, see things differently from Jordan Peterson. As did Jesus who associated meekness with humility (or, lowliness) in Matthew 11:29, and not with restrained power or strength, let alone swords. Jesus, Ignatius, and the authors of the Didache saw meekness as a counterpart of humility.
Postscript 3: March 26, 2023
Meekness in the Apocryphal Acts of Thomas
Meekness (πρᾳότης/ praotēs) is mentioned several times in the Acts of Thomas, especially in chapter 86. This work was originally written in Syriac in the 220s or 230s, but soon after translated into Greek. Praotēs in chapter 86 translates a Syriac word which is close in meaning to humility. In the Acts of Thomas, meekness, or humility, is contrasted with the harsh behaviour of several characters, so I’ve chosen to translate praotēs as “gentleness” in the following.
But gentleness has overcome death and brought him under her power. Gentleness has enslaved enmity. Gentleness is a good yoke. Gentleness does not fear anything and does not oppose many [things]. Gentleness is peace and joy and the delight of rest. So remain in a state of holiness and receive freedom from [worldly] worry and be ready to become more gentle, for in these three such cardinal virtues is depicted the Messiah whom I proclaim to you. … And gentleness is [the Messiah’s] boast. For he said to Peter our fellow apostle, “Return your sword and put it back into its sheath. For if I had wanted this to happen, was I not able to cause more than twelve legions of angels from my Father to appear?”
Acts of Thomas 86. My translation from the Greek. Compare with M.R. James’s translation and A.F.J. Klijn’s translation (pp. 165–166).
Interestingly, Peter’s sword and sheath are mentioned (cf. John 18:10–11), but it has little to do with Jordan Peterson’s understanding of meekness and his analogy of a sword and sheath. (See previous postscript)
In chapter 93 are some blessings including this threefold blessing for “the gentle/ the meek” (οἱ πραεῖς/ hoi praeis).
Blessed are the gentle because God has counted you worthy to become heirs of the heavenly kingdom. Blessed are the gentle, for you are the ones who have overcome the enemy. Blessed are the gentle, because you will see the face of the Lord.
Acts of Thomas 93, my translation from the Greek.
Excerpt of a grave stele of Dexileus, an Athenian equestrian, who was born in 414 BC and who fell in battle near Corinth in 394. More about this stele on Wikimedia.
“A Gentle and Quiet Spirit” is not just a Feminine Virtue
All my articles on meekness are here.
All my articles on 1 Peter 3:1–7 are here.
“Come to Me”: A Commentary on Matthew 11:28–30