Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism

Freebies for Students of New Testament Greek

Here are some free online Greek texts, tools and resources that I have found useful, plus a few that have been recommended to me by friends. (There’s more in the comments section below.)

Want to Learn New Testament Greek?

A list of websites that offer free courses and resources for beginners is here.

The Greek New Testament (GNT)

If you don’t have your own copy of the Greek New Testament you can read the SBL edition online at Bible Gateway. (The SBLGNT can be read on Bible Gateway in parallel with English and other translations of the New Testament.) Or you may prefer to read the latest Nestle-Aland edition, which is online here. The new Tyndale House Greek New Testament can be read online at ESV.org. Online versions are great for copy-and-pasting passages into assignments and papers. Also, the GNT Reader has useful features and is very simple to navigate.

The Septuagint (LXX)

As well as the New Testament, there are online editions of the Septuagint, the Greek Old Testament. This online edition of the Septuagint is based on Alfred Rahlfs’ edition that has been edited again more recently by Robert Hanhart, © 2006 Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart.

Bible Web App is a good place to read the Septuagint and the New Testament. (Unfortunately, the Jewish Apocrypha is not included.) Bible Webb App has useful tools that are easy to use. The Blue Letter Bible also has a version of the Septuagint with a few tools here. The Jewish Apocrypha (as well as the LXX, GNT, and Apostolic Fathers) can be read in Greek here. See here also. David Black has even more links of interest for students of the Septuagint here.

Lumina by Bible.org

Lumina is a free online Bible study resource that has some great features for students of Greek (and of Hebrew.) Useful information, including parsing, pops up on the screen when you hover over or click on a word in the Greek New Testament. This resource also has NET Bible notes. Try out Lumina here.

STEP Bible by Tyndale House

STEP (Scripture Tools for Every Person) is a project of Tyndale House, Cambridge. Their aim is to build and distribute high-quality free Bible tools for disadvantaged believers who have few resources, but others can use it online. Hover over a word of the Greek text (New Testament or Septuagint) to see the English definition. Click on the word to see the parsing information, etc. Here’s a good place to start.

Daily Dose of Greek (Videos)

In each of these very short videos, Dr Rob Plummer, a professor of New Testament interpretation, goes through a single verse of the New Testament and explains the grammar. Rob pitches his explanations at students who have done two semesters of New Testament Greek. These videos are great if you want to keep those grammar rules fresh in your mind. A link is sent daily via email to subscribers.

Along the same lines, Dr David Noe, Associate Professor of Classics at Calvin College, has links to short videos on YouTube, here, where he explains the grammar of passages from Matthew’s Gospel, 1 Corinthians, Genesis 1 in the Septuagint, as well as excerpts from a few of the writings of the church fathers. The 4-minute videos seem to be aimed at students with at least three semesters of Greek under their belt.

Greek Concordance

This is a resource I use almost every day. I use it when I want to quickly see how a particular Greek word is used elsewhere in the New Testament and by which authors. Click on a letter of the Greek alphabet (in the darker blue band) to begin your search. There are mistakes with the use of accents and some definitions are not completely accurate, so user beware. A Greek New Testament you can search with Greek stems is here.

Liddell, Scott, and Jones (LSJ)

The 1940 edition of this exhaustive lexicon of Ancient Greek is available at the Perseus Digital Library here. The shorter “Middle Liddell” is here.

Louw-Nida Lexicon

The entries in this lexicon are arranged by semantic domains. That is, words with similar meanings are grouped together under one heading. This can be useful as it helps us to see similarities and differences in words with related meanings. There are a few other features that make this a valuable resource. Here is a video that shows how to use this resource well.

Smyth’s Greek Grammar for Colleges

The 1920 edition of H.W. Smyth’s A Greek Grammar for Colleges is available on the Perseus Digital Library website here, and on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library website here. (Each website has its own pros and cons.) Note that this grammar is of Ancient Greek and not just of Koine or New Testament Greek.

Moulton’s Grammar of New Testament Greek

Published in 1870, the full title of this grammar is A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek: Regarded as a Sure Basis for New Testament Exegesis. It was originally written in German by Georg Benedikt Winer and translated into English by W.F. Moulton. Please consult more modern grammars, especially for discussions on the middle voice and the perfect tense. This grammar can be viewed at Internet Archive here. A 312-page pdf is here.

SBL’s Apparatus for Greek New Testament

If you click on the “Library” at Biblia.com you can access the apparatus of the Greek NT edited by Michael Holmes for the Society of Biblical Literature.

GreekNewTestament.Net

The aim of this website is “to collate and transcribe all extant manuscripts of the New Testament” and it includes a textual apparatus. The website is easy to navigate and shows how a particular NT verse is rendered in different ancient manuscripts, especially Greek manuscripts. This project is ongoing and not yet complete.

Greek Fonts

There are many Greek fonts available for free including the one that comes with Microsoft Windows. I’ve found the Teknia Greek easy to work with. It can be downloaded here. If you download the Teknia Greek font, make sure you download the pdf of the keyboard layout too. Many scholars, however, use the SBL Greek font which can be downloaded here.

Biblearc

This online tool enables users to do sentence diagramming and arcing/bracketing, and more.

An Intermediate Greek Reader

Produced by Nijay Gupta and Jonah Sandford, and freely available online here, this intermediate graded reader presumes the user will have already learned the basics of Greek grammar and syntax and has memorized Greek words that appear frequently in the New Testament. It moves from simpler translation work (Galatians) towards more advanced readings from the book of James, the Septuagint, and from one of the Church Fathers.

New Understandings in Greek

On Dr Seumas Macdonald’s blog, The Patrologist, is a short series about new understandings in ancient Greek. Part one is on aspect and tense in verbs. Parts two and three are on aktionsart. Part four is on voice.

Con Campbell on Tense and Aspect

This 40-minute video is a lecture Dr Con Campbell gave at the Linguistics and New Testament Greek conference at Southeastern Seminary in April 2019.

Lectures on Textual Criticism

In this resource on the Biblical Training website, Dr Daniel Wallace gives 36 half-hour lectures on textual criticism.

Resources by Danny Zacharias

Danny Zacharias, who describes himself as an “edupreneur”, has the largest list of Greek principal parts, freely available on the internet, here. Danny has also developed some handy apps including ParseGreek and FlashGreek. There are free versions if you want to try them out, but the complete versions are only a few dollars. You can easily change the degree of difficulty on these apps.

David Black’s New Testament Greek Portal

There is a ton of great stuff here! Take a look at Dr Black’s What’s New page too.

Bryan College Library

There are lots of Greek grammars, concordances, lexicons, and texts, for both the New Testament and the Septuagint, here.

Learning Koine as a Living Language

Here is a 45-minute video where Koine is taught as a living language and using physical responses.

Video of Mark’s Gospel in Greek

At KoineGreek.com you can now watch the entire Gospel of Mark film spoken in Koine Greek with Greek captions, here.

SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms

This website offers definitions of linguistic terms. It is not written with biblical Greek in mind, but it is useful if you want to look up the meaning of a linguistic term such as “definition,” “inflection,” “parataxis,” etc.

And more . . .

B-Greek: The Biblical Greek Forum, here.
The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts’ website, here.
Evangelical Textual Criticism’s website, here.
Flashcards of New Testament Greek words, here.
An index to Migne’s’ Patrologia Graeca (in Google Books) here.
Abbreviations of authors and their works used in the TLG and LSJ, etc, here.
Scaife Viewer has over 1000 Greek works, including early Christian texts, here.
Greek NewTestament: The Original Text Project is a work in progress that aims to include every NT verse as they appear in all ancient sources, here.

 

What tools or websites do you recommend?

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Related Articles

Using Greek-English Dictionaries and “Moving Bones”
Freebies for Students of the New Testament
Freebies for Students of the Early Church

10 thoughts on “Freebies for Students of New Testament Greek

  1. Hi Margaret: Very good work. Excellent. Thanks for share.

    Blessings

    Olga Lucia

    1. Thanks, Shirley.

      There’s good stuff on the Motorera and Laparola websites. I’ll take a look at yours too.

      1. Dear Marg
        Thank you for the excellent resources.

        I am trying to learn to read Koine Greek with the mini goal of being able to read and understand one chapter of the New Testament without constantly referencing the phonetic Greek dictionary. Currently I am using the SBLG New Testament offered by Cambridge.

        https://www.stepbible.org/?q=version=SBLG|reference=Rom.6&options=VNGUH

        I am having some difficulties. For example, when I go to the Cambridge SBLG I am looking at a common Greek New Testament word ἐροῦμεν but when I click it for the phonetic Greek translation that I am more familiar with it says λέγω (legō). What’s going on here? I can see that ἐροῦμεν is completely different than λέγω. Moreover, there are some types of other irregular symbols that I find challenging including two or three different spellings for the phonetic Greek word “megas”.

        There is not much difference between the SBLG and the other Greek New Testaments is there? Certainly not enough to affect doctrine, I hope.
        Sincerely
        Dana

        1. Hi Dana, What is a phonetic Greek translation?

          As for λέγω and ἐροῦμεν: there are several Greek verbs where different tenses are formed from completely different stems. The future form of λέγω (“I am speaking”) is ἐρῶ (“I will speak”); the aorist is usually εἶπον.

          As another example, the future and aorist forms of ἐσθίω (“I am eating”) are φάγομαι and ἔφαγον.

          The difference in stems is due to the Greek language evolving and some words/ forms becoming obsolete while other words/ forms persist.

          The similarities and differences in stems can be seen in charts of Principal Parts. (Learning the principal parts of verbs is an essential part of learning Greek.)

          Perhaps these links to info on principal parts are of use to you.
          https://www.dannyzacharias.net/greek-stuff

          This chart of principal parts of common New Testament verbs is clear and easy to use.
          http://www.drshirley.org/greek/textbook02/appendix-C01.pdf

          https://greek2u.wordpress.com/2012/09/25/principal-parts-of-frequently-encountered-irregular-new-testament-greek-verbs/

          1. That may not be what it’s technically called but I call the translation from the original symbol structure into a series of phonetic sounds for example diakonos or sou phonetic Greek words because they aim at presenting the original word the way that it sounds.

          2. Well thank you for explaining that to me.
            I will look at that Principal Parts chart. So, it’s that difference of tense that makes it look like a completely different word. I’m not willing to give up on this quite yet but this is very difficult for me because all the different words and sounds might be spelled completely differently for example ἐροῦμεν do not even visually contain the symbols λέγω.
            Clearly the le sound must be there, but it doesn’t look like λέ but instead ῦμ. I was learning these sounds with the Learn Greek Free lessons but then when I looked at the SGLG again I noticed situations like this were cropping up quite a bit and I want to find out what’s going on.

          3. The stem of the future of λέγω is ἐρ-. The λέγ- stem (and sound) is not in the future tense (or aorist or perfect tenses) in NT Greek.

            The stems λέγ- and ἐρ- are derived from what were originally two unrelated different “say/ speak” words. Over time the two words came to be regarded as essentially the same word, with ἐρ- being the form typically used in the future tense. (That’s a very basic explanation.)

            -οῦμεν, or almost identical endings such as -ομεν, is the first-person plural (“we”) ending of numerous verbs. The ending does not primarily denote tense; it denotes:
            person (first, second, or third person)
            number (singular or plural), and
            voice (active, middle, passive, or middle-passive).

            λέγω usually means “I say” or “I am saying”; ἐροῦμεν means “we will say.”

            The first-person singular present active indicative form of each verb is what’s called the lexical form, or dictionary form. λέγω is the lexical form of ἐροῦμεν and of all other inflexions of the λέγω verb.
            (By way of example, in English, the verb “run” is the lexical form of run, runs, running, was running, will run, ran, had run. But Greek has many more inflexions.)

            If you want to learn to read Greek, I strongly recommend learning the Greek alphabet so you can read the Greek words with Greek letters rather than Latin letters. Not all the information given in Greek letters and Greek symbols, such as the important iota subscript, are conveyed in Latin letters. I think it’s impossible to learn Greek using Latin letters.

            Saying Greek words aloud is a vital part of learning them. “Diakonos” gives no indication of where to place the emphasis. Dιάκονος does.

            Here is a free Greek textbook: http://www.drshirley.org/greek/textbook02/contents.html
            The present active indicative forms of λέγω are shown in lesson 3. It shows λέγοµεν, with the typical -ομεν (“we”) ending, as the first-person plural present active indicative form of λέγω.

            Here’s another free textbook: https://place.asburyseminary.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=academicbooks
            This one is not the easiest. (It uses Erasmian pronunciation whereas most scholars today use Modern Greek pronunciation. But that’s fine for now.) The verbs of this textbook start on p.15 (p.32 of the actual pdf).

            I believe the key to my success with Greek was that went very, very slowly. I started at the beginning and only moved on when I was very comfortable with each lesson. I also bought several second-hand Greek textbooks to help me get a handle on concepts. Each teacher/ author explains things slightly differently which I found helpful.

            There are many videos on YouTube and on other sites that can help you learn the alphabet and then noun and verb paradigms.

        2. The Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) GNT, the Nestle-Aland (NA28 or UBS5) GNT, and the Tyndale House (TH) GNT are all fine. Though I prefer the SBL and NA28 texts.

          Also, I wouldn’t start with reading Romans, or any of Paul’s letters, in Greek. I’d start with John’s Gospel. The Greek of Romans is more difficult than the Greek in John’s Gospel and letters.

  2. Here is a link to many ancient Jewish and Christian documents, some in Greek, via Google translate as many of the headings and names of works are written in Russian.

    https://translate.google.com.au/translate?sl=ru&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fkhazarzar.skeptik.net%2Fbooks%2Findex.htm&edit-text=

    A.T. Robertson’s 1923 book, The Minister and his Greek New Testament, is available free to read on Internet Archive here: https://archive.org/details/ministerhisgreek00robe/page/n11/mode/2up

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