Here are some free online Greek texts, tools and resources that I have found useful, plus a few that have been recommended to me by friends. (There’s more in the comments section below.)
Want to Learn New Testament Greek?
A list of websites that offer free courses and resources for beginners is here.
The Greek New Testament (GNT)
If you don’t have your own copy of the Greek New Testament you can read the SBL edition online at Bible Gateway. (The SBLGNT can be read on Bible Gateway in parallel with English and other translations of the New Testament.) Or you may prefer to read the latest Nestle-Aland edition, which is online here. The new Tyndale House Greek New Testament can be read online at ESV.org. Online versions are great for copy-and-pasting passages into assignments and papers. Also, the GNT Reader has useful features and is very simple to navigate.
The Septuagint (LXX)
As well as the New Testament, there are online editions of the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament. This online edition of the Septuagint is based on Alfred Rahlfs’ edition that has been edited again more recently by Robert Hanhart, © 2006 Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart. Swete’s edition of the LXX appears to be in the public domain but the Jewish apocryphal books are not included.
Bible Web App is a good place to read the Septuagint and the New Testament. (Unfortunately, the Jewish Apocrypha is not included.) Bible Webb App has useful tools that are easy to use. The Blue Letter Bible also has a version of the Septuagint with a few tools here. The Jewish Apocrypha (as well as the LXX, GNT, and Apostolic Fathers) can be read in Greek here. Kata Biblon has the LXX including Apocrypha here. David Black has even more links of interest for students of the Septuagint here.
Lumina by Bible.org
Lumina is a free online Bible study resource that has some great features for students of Greek (and of Hebrew.) Useful information, including parsing, pops up on the screen when you hover over or click on a word in the Greek New Testament. This resource also has NET Bible notes. Try out Lumina here.
STEP Bible by Tyndale House
STEP (Scripture Tools for Every Person) is a project of Tyndale House, Cambridge. Their aim is to build and distribute high-quality free Bible tools for disadvantaged believers who have few resources, but others can use it online. Hover over a word of the Greek text (New Testament or Septuagint) to see the English definition. Click on the word to see the parsing information, etc. Here’s a good place to start.
Daily Dose of Greek (Videos)
In each of these very short videos, Dr Rob Plummer, a professor of New Testament interpretation, goes through a single verse of the New Testament and explains the grammar. Rob pitches his explanations at students who have done two semesters of New Testament Greek. These videos are great if you want to keep those grammar rules fresh in your mind. A link is sent daily via email to subscribers.
Along the same lines, Dr David Noe, Associate Professor of Classics at Calvin College, has links to short videos on YouTube, here, where he explains the grammar of passages from Matthew’s Gospel, 1 Corinthians, Genesis 1 in the Septuagint, as well as excerpts from a few of the writings of the church fathers. The 4-minute videos seem to be aimed at students with at least three semesters of Greek under their belt.
Englishman’s Greek Concordance
This is a resource I use almost every day. I use it when I want to quickly see how a particular Greek word is used elsewhere in the New Testament and by which authors. Click on a letter of the Greek alphabet (in the darker blue band) to begin your search. There are mistakes with the use of accents and some definitions are not completely accurate, so user beware. A Greek New Testament you can search with Greek stems is here.
Liddell, Scott, and Jones (LSJ)
The entries in this lexicon are arranged by semantic domains. That is, words with similar meanings are grouped together under one heading. This can be useful as it helps us to see similarities and differences in words with related meanings. There are a few other features that make this a valuable resource. Here is a video that shows how to use this resource well.
Smyth’s Greek Grammar for Colleges
The 1920 edition of H.W. Smyth’s A Greek Grammar for Colleges is available on the Perseus Digital Library website here, and on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library website here. (Each website has its own pros and cons.) Note that this grammar is of Ancient Greek and not just of Koine or New Testament Greek.
Moulton’s Grammar of New Testament Greek
Published in 1870, the full title of this grammar is A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek: Regarded as a Sure Basis for New Testament Exegesis. It was originally written in German by Georg Benedikt Winer and translated into English by W.F. Moulton. Please consult more modern grammars, especially for discussions on the middle voice and the perfect tense. This grammar can be viewed at Internet Archive here.
Goodell’s A School Grammar of Attic Greek
The English has been updated in this basic grammar by Thomas Dwight Goodell which was originally published in 1902. The grammar is uploaded on the website of Dickinson College, here, and is easy to use.
SBL’s Apparatus for Greek New Testament
If you click on the “Library” at Biblia.com you can access the apparatus of the Greek NT edited by Michael Holmes for the Society of Biblical Literature.
The aim of this website is “to collate and transcribe all extant manuscripts of the New Testament” and it includes a textual apparatus. The website is easy to navigate and shows how a particular NT verse is rendered in different ancient manuscripts, especially Greek manuscripts. This project is ongoing and not yet complete.
There are many Greek fonts available for free including the one that comes with Microsoft Windows. I’ve found the Teknia Greek easy to work with. It can be downloaded here. If you download the Teknia Greek font, make sure you download the pdf of the keyboard layout too. Many scholars, however, use the SBL Greek font which can be downloaded here.
This online tool enables users to do sentence diagramming and arcing/bracketing, and more.
An Intermediate Greek Reader
Produced by Nijay Gupta and Jonah Sandford, and freely available online here, this intermediate graded reader presumes the user will have already learned the basics of Greek grammar and syntax and has memorized Greek words that appear frequently in the New Testament. It moves from simpler translation work (Galatians) towards more advanced readings from the book of James, the Septuagint, and from one of the Church Fathers.
New Understandings in Greek
On Dr Seumas Macdonald’s blog, The Patrologist, is a short series about new understandings in ancient Greek. Part one is on aspect and tense in verbs. Parts two and three are on aktionsart. Part four is on voice.
Con Campbell on Tense and Aspect
This 40-minute video is a lecture Dr Con Campbell gave at the Linguistics and New Testament Greek conference at Southeastern Seminary in April 2019.
Lectures on Textual Criticism
In this resource on the Biblical Training website, Dr Daniel Wallace gives 36 half-hour lectures on textual criticism.
Resources by Danny Zacharias
Danny Zacharias, who describes himself as an “edupreneur”, has the largest list of Greek principal parts, freely available on the internet, here. Danny has also developed some handy apps including ParseGreek and FlashGreek. There are free versions if you want to try them out, but the complete versions are only a few dollars. You can easily change the degree of difficulty on these apps.
David Black’s New Testament Greek Portal
Bryan College Library
There are lots of Greek grammars, concordances, lexicons, and texts, for both the New Testament and the Septuagint, here.
Learning Koine as a Living Language
Here is a 45-minute video where Koine is taught as a living language and using physical responses.
Video of Mark’s Gospel in Greek
At KoineGreek.com you can now watch the entire Gospel of Mark film spoken in Koine Greek with Greek captions, here.
SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms
This website offers definitions of linguistic terms. It is not written with biblical Greek in mind, but it is useful if you want to look up the meaning of a linguistic term such as “definition,” “inflection,” “parataxis,” etc.
And more . . .
B-Greek: The Biblical Greek Forum, here.
The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts’ website, here.
Evangelical Textual Criticism’s website, here.
Flashcards of New Testament Greek words, here.
An index to Migne’s’ Patrologia Graeca (in Google Books) here.
Abbreviations of authors and their works used in the TLG and LSJ, etc, here.
Abbreviations of the books of the Bible and of early Jewish and Christian literature (SBL 1999), here.
A pdf of even more general and technical abbreviations in the SBL Handbook, including those of early Jewish and Christian primary and secondary sources, here.
Scaife Viewer has over 1000 Greek works, including early Christian texts, here.
Greek NewTestament: The Original Text Project is a work in progress that aims to include every NT verse as they appear in all ancient sources, here.
Hellas Alive (알파벳과 발음) is a resource for English-speaking and Korean-speaking students of ancient Greek, here.
What tools or websites do you recommend?
Postscript: January 13, 2022
Cambridge Greek Lexicon
I do not recommend the new Cambridge Greek Lexicon for students of the New Testament. This lexicon was written with students of Classical Greek in mind. The lexicographers did not consult the Septuagint, Jewish Greek authors such as Philo and Josephus, or inscriptions or papyri. These post-classical sources shed light on New Testament Greek. The Cambridge Greek Lexicon does not cover the New Testament itself apart from the four Gospels and Acts.
Using Greek-English Dictionaries and “Moving Bones”
Freebies for Students of the New Testament
Freebies for Students of the Early Church
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