Here are some first-century Greek texts that use the word kephalē (“head”). They show how the word was used in Paul’s day.
Is Ephesians 5:21-22 one sentence or two? What is the best way to punctuate these verses? How do ancient manuscripts treat them?
Is it significant that there is no “submit” word in Ephesians 5:22 in two of the oldest Greek manuscripts? Did Paul tell wives to submit?
Eph. 5:21 is one New Testament verse that encourages mutual submission. 1 Peter 5:5 is another. This post looks at the Greek grammar and vocabulary of 1 Peter 5:5.
Is male headship and female submission the best way for husbands and wives who are in Christ to live by New Testament and New Creation principles?
In Ephesians 5:33 it says that a wife should respect (phobeō) her husband. What is the connection between respect & fear? Did Paul want wives to be afraid?
When we read the NT household codes, we need to keep in mind that some “masters” were women. How does this affect our understanding of these passages?