Eunice’s Family in Lystra (Acts 16:1-4)
Eunice is a devout Jewish woman mentioned briefly in the Bible. She was the daughter of Lois and the wife of an unnamed gentile man. She was also the mother of Timothy, a young man mentioned by name twenty-four times in the New Testament.
Acts 16:1-4 contains the first mention of Timothy in the New Testament, and it also mentions his mother.
Paul went on to Derbe and Lystra, where there was a disciple named Timothy, the son of a believing Jewish woman, but his father was a Greek. The brothers and sisters at Lystra and Iconium spoke highly of him. Paul wanted Timothy to go with him; so he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those places, since they all knew that his father was a Greek. Acts 16:1-4 CSB
The author of Acts, traditionally thought to be Luke, does not give her name here, but we know from 2 Timothy 1:5 that it was Eunice, a Greek name meaning “conquering well” or “good victory.” It is a strong and optimistic name. Lois may have chosen the name for her daughter with the hope she would have strength and perseverance, and blessing, to be victorious in life.
Timothy’s grandmother Lois is not mentioned in Acts but she is named with Eunice in 2 Timothy 1:5. Lois may well have been a support during her daughter’s marriage. It is difficult to work out why Eunice, a pious Jewish woman, would have been married to a Greek man, that is, to an uncircumcised pagan man. The marriage may have reflected poorly on Eunice and her family, and been a cause of unease in their local Jewish community.
Eunice and Timothy’s Uncertain Situation
Eunice lived in Lystra in the Roman province of Galatia (modern-day Turkey). Like the other Jews in the area, she was a Hellenised Jew and spoke Greek. Her son’s name, Timothy, is Greek and means “honouring God” or “honoured by God.” There is little doubt Eunice would have had the God of the Bible in mind when her son was named, even if her husband didn’t.
With a Jewish mother and Greek father, Timothy’s status as a Jew was uncertain, and he may not have been completely accepted by the Jewish community. Despite Eunice’s Jewish faith, Timothy had not been circumcised as a baby. Perhaps her husband had forbidden it. Or maybe the Jewish community had denied Eunice’s request for her baby boy to be circumcised because his father was a Gentile.
Eunice’s husband is not named in the New Testament (Acts 16:4). The fact that he is barely mentioned suggests he was either deceased or divorced from Eunice when Paul came to Lystra and took Timothy under his wing. Whether he was dead, divorced, or perhaps still part of the family, he was almost certainly not a Christian.
Lois and Eunice’s Jewish Faith and Teaching (2 Tim. 3:15)
Because he was not circumcised, Timothy could not have been a full member of the Jewish community. Nevertheless, Lois and Eunice shared their faith with him, and they saw to it that, from a very young age, he learned the sacred Jewish scriptures.
In a letter Paul later wrote to Timothy, the apostle alludes to Lois and Eunice, as well as to himself, as “those who taught” Timothy.
“But as for you, continue in what you have learned and firmly believed. You know those who taught you, and you know that from infancy you have known the sacred Scriptures, which are able to give you wisdom for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.” 2 Timothy 3:14-15 CSB
Craig Keener notes that “in Jewish circles, fathers bore primary responsibility for sons’ education in the Torah, but a mother could assume responsibility for this education if the father was unavailable.” This was the case for Eunice’s family. It is unlikely Timothy’s father would have known the Torah, the Jewish sacred scriptures.
It is also unlikely that Lois and Eunice had access to scrolls of scripture (as depicted in the illustration above). Scrolls were prohibitively expensive, and books had yet to be invented. The women would have taught Timothy from memory. (Rote learning from memory was common in oral-based, rather than literary, societies.) They probably ensured he learnt from others too, from tutors attached to a synagogue in Lystra.
Timothy could have followed his father’s example and observed pagan rites, but he accepted the Jewish faith and teaching of his godly mother and grandmother. This prepared him to accept the good news about Jesus and to later accept Paul’s invitation to join him in ministry.
Lois and Eunice’s Christian Faith and Influence (2 Tim. 1:5)
Lois and Eunice may have been won over to the gospel through the ministry of Paul and Barnabas when the missionaries visited Lystra in around 48 CE (Acts 14:6-20). Timothy may then have accepted Christianity through the women’s influence. Paul acknowledges that Lois and Eunice became Christians first before Timothy.
“I am reminded of your sincere faith, which first lived in your grandmother Lois and in your mother Eunice and, I am persuaded, now lives in you also.” 2 Timothy 1:5 CSB
When Paul returned to Lystra a couple of years later, this time with Silas, he saw Timothy excelling as a Christian disciple, perhaps more evidence of his mother’s and grandmother’s influence. And the young man was fully accepted by the Christian community (Acts 16:2). Paul decided to take Timothy with him on his mission as a student minister, but not before taking on a fatherly role by having him circumcised.
Now that he was circumcised, Timothy was a full member of the Jewish community. He would also prove to be a faithful minister of the gospel who worked closely with Paul. The apostle speaks warmly about Timothy in his letters; he regarded him as “my true son in the faith” (1 Cor. 4:17; 1 Tim. 1:2, 18; cf. Phil. 2:22)
It is likely that Eunice faced many challenges in life, but she would have known relief and joy when her son was circumcised so that he could be fully Jewish. She would have experienced even more relief and joy when Paul became a father, teacher, and mentor to her son. And despite the inherent hardships, she would have been gratified that Timothy was serving God as Paul’s ministry partner and envoy.
Paul honours both Lois and Eunice, acknowledging that they had been Timothy’s teachers. These women, together, enabled Timothy to become a man of God who was equipped to face his own challenges, including the challenge of heterodox and deceptive teaching in Ephesus (2 Tim. 3:13-17).
Whether we have a supportive community, or not, and whether we have a supportive spouse, or not, we can be like Eunice. We can be a godly influence in our children’s lives (or other children’s lives) and teach them the holy scriptures that will make them “wise in a way that leads to salvation through faith that is in Christ Jesus” (2 Tim. 3:15 CEB). And perhaps more than ever, we need godly grandparents like Lois who will encourage and support younger generations in the faith.
 Eunice is described in Acts 16:1 with two adjectives: Ioudaia, which means “Jewish,” and pistē, which can mean “faithful” or “believing” depending on the context. “Believing, Jewish woman,” as in the CSB, makes good sense of the Greek if we think Luke is trying to convey that she is both Jewish and a Christian believer. But if he is contrasting her with her Greek husband, which is entirely possible, “faithful Jewish woman” may be the intended meaning.
 “Eunice” (Εὐνίκη) contains the word nikē (νίκη) which means “victory” with the prefix eu (ευ) which typically gives the sense of “well” or “good.” So “Eunice” means “good victory” or simply “victorious.”
The name Lois (Λωΐς) is not found in any surviving ancient document before its appearance in 2 Timothy 1:5, and it is rare afterwards. “Lois” may be derived from the Greek word lōiōn (λωΐων) which means “better (more desirable, more agreeable).” Lōiōn is sometimes paired in ancient Greek literature with ameinōn (ἀμείνων) as both words share similar senses. Ameinōn means “better (stronger, braver).” And both words are used as comparative adjectives for agathos (“good”). (Lōistos (λώϊστος) is used as a superlative of agathos and means “best.”)
 The marriage was probably arranged by Eunice’s father, but this still raises questions as Jews frowned upon inter-ethnic marriages.
Yevamot 45a and 45b, in the Babylonian Talmud, presents a discussion on the status of children born to Jewish mothers with gentile fathers.
 These writings would have been the Greek version of the Old Testament.
 Craig Keener points out that “Timothy’s circumcision is here explicitly a missionary strategy not a concession to others’ mistaken standards of salvation or holiness. Paul specifically said that he practised Jewish customs and submitted to Jewish law to reach Jewish people (1 Cor. 9:20).” Keener, Acts: An Exegetical Commentary: Volume 3. (Google Books)
Paul opposed the circumcision of Gentile converts to the gospel; he did not oppose the circumcision of Jews.
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Excerpt from a woodcut illustration of Lois and Timothy. The illustration is found in The Bible in Picture and Stories by Louise Houghton (New York: American Tract Society, 1899), 228. (Source: Internet Archive; Public Domain)
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