The wife hath not power of her own body, but the husband; and likewise also the husband hath not power of his own body, but the wife (1 Corinthians 7:4 KJV).
Paul’s teaching in 1 Corinthians 7:4 sounds harsh in most English translations and it is frequently misunderstood. Sometimes this verse is even used to coerce and “guilt” a reluctant spouse into having sex, but this was never Paul’s intention.
It is noteworthy that Paul’s instructions throughout chapter 7 are framed by the concept of mutuality: wives and husbands, women and men, have identical instructions and are to live by the same standards. There are no double standards here or any hint of a gender hierarchy. One-sided power plays have no part in Christian relationships, including marriage.
So what did Paul mean in 1 Corinthians 7:4?
The Greek word for “have authority” in 1 Corinthians 7:4
One impediment to understanding this verse is having a limited understanding of the verb meaning “have power/ authority” (Greek: exousiazō). This verb occurs only four times in the New Testament. The related noun exousia is a more common word and occurs over 100 times in the NT, 10 times in First Corinthians. So we have a good idea of its range of nuances.
Exousia is usually translated as “right” or “authority,” but it can have a sense of “freedom” or “liberty.” I liken the meaning of exousia to having a driver’s license. When you have a driver’s license you have the authority, the right, and the freedom to drive a vehicle on public roads. The context of 1 Corinthians 7:4 is not about driving a car, however; it is about something deeply personal, sex in marriage.
Another impediment to understanding Paul’s meaning and intention is the unnecessary addition of the word “over” in most English translations of this verse. There is no word for “over” in the Greek text. (I chose to use the very literal KJV translation at the top of this post because it does not include the word “over.”)
The contexts of celibacy and fidelity in 1 Corinthians 7:4
As well as understanding the words, we need to understand the context of 1 Corinthians 7:4. The overall context of the first seven verses of 1 Corinthians chapter 7 is Paul’s concern about the unwise practice of celibacy within some marriages in the Corinthian church. He did not believe celibacy was sustainable for most couples and was concerned that it might lead to infidelity in a society where sexual immorality was rife.
Writing about 1 Corinthians 7, Gordon D. Fee cautions,
… one must remember that the original intent of the passage was not to establish canon law but to address a specific situation in Corinth—their apparent rejection of marriage on ascetic grounds. The text needs to be heard in its own historical context before it is applied to broader contexts.
An interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:4
So, pulling these bits of information together, how are we to understand 1 Corinthians 7:4?
My understanding of Paul’s teaching here is that a wife or husband cannot make a vow of celibacy and permanently withhold sex without their spouse’s permission. They do not have that right or authority. (Conversely, a wife or husband cannot have sex with whoever they want, because their spouse has an exclusive right of having sexual relations with them.)
Here is my very-much-expanded paraphrase of 1 Corinthians 7:4.
A wife does not “have the right or license” (exousiazō) to choose to become celibate because her husband has a right to have sex with her.
Likewise, a husband also does not “have the right or license” (exousiazō) to choose to become celibate (or have sex with someone other than his spouse) because his wife has a right to have sex with him.
A husband and wife should give themselves, their bodies, to each other, and only to each other, in an exclusive relationship (cf. 1 Cor. 7:2, 3). However, some Christian wives and husbands in Corinth were making vows of celibacy as a demonstration of ascetic piety; some were making this vow without the mutual consent of their spouse (cf. 1 Cor. 7:5–7).
Other Corinthian Christians were promiscuous. Like many port cities of the ancient world, the city of Corinth was known for its sexual immorality. Immorality was also a problem within the Corinthian congregation (e.g., 1 Cor. 5:1–2, 9–10; 6:12–20; 7:2).
Paul wrote 1 Corinthians 7:1–6 to address the situation of some Corinthians who were choosing to become celibate. His concern was that this choice could not be sustained and would lead to sexual immorality. We must understand this context before we try to apply Paul’s words today.
Furthermore, 1 Corinthians 7:4 is not a command, and should not be used as such. Paul states that his instructions in 1 Corinthians 7:1–7 are a concession (1 Cor. 7:6). Paul’s intention, and the original context, must be kept in mind when interpreting and applying 1 Corinthians 7:4.
This article is an Additional Resource recommended by Yale Bible Studies.
 1 Corinthians 7:4 cannot be used legitimately to bully or guilt a spouse into having sex, as love is the ultimate law (Rom. 13:8, 10). Love is the yardstick for interpreting all biblical instructions. If a spouse is unwilling to have sex, there is a reason. People who use this verse to bully or guilt their spouse may be unwilling to accept or work through the reason.
 The verb exousiazō occurs only four times in the New Testament:
~ In Luke 22:25, the articular plural participle of exousiazō can be translated as “those having authority.”
~ In Corinthians 6:12, the future passive of exousiazō (with ouk, which means “not”) can be translated as “I will (not) be mastered” or “I will (not) be under the power.”
~ The verb occurs twice in 1 Corinthians 7:4.
The verb also occurs in Ecclesiastes 8:4, 8:8a, 8:9b, and Nehemiah 5:15b of the Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament.
Like the related noun exousia, the verb exousiazō can have a range of meanings and nuances. According to LSJ, it can mean to exercise authority, have power, enjoy license. From my observations, the noun exousia has a broader range of meanings and nuances than the verb. Still, the primary meaning of the noun is “power, authority to do a thing.” (See LSJ.) Any sense of freedom, license or permission associated with the noun or verb is due to some kind of authority or right. I look further at exousia in this article on 1 Corinthians 11:10, here.
 Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 1987), 291.
 Margaret MacDonald writes that some women in the church at Corinth were leaving their marriages and divorcing their husbands in order to pursue religious purity. Early Christian Women and Pagan Opinion: The Power of the Hysterical Woman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 137.
(More on sexual asceticism in early Christianity, here. More on divorce in 1 Corinthians 7, here.)
Asceticism and sexual renunciation became popular at an early stage of Christianity. Tertullian (born 160) wrote to his wife, “To us continence [celibacy] has been pointed out by the Lord of salvation as an instrument for attaining eternity, and as a testimony of (our) faith …” To his wife 1.8. They had a sexless marriage.
 1 Corinthians 7:4 is at the centre of a chiasm made up of verses 1–7. The following is taken from the NIV except that I’ve edited verse 4 to reflect the Greek more literally (cf. 1 Cor. 7:4 KJV).
Now for the matters you wrote about: “It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with a woman.”
But since sexual immorality is occurring, each man should have sexual relations with his own wife, and each woman with her own husband.
The husband should fulfill his marital duty to his wife, and likewise the wife to her husband.
The wife does not have authority [of] over her own body but … her husband. In the same way, the husband does not have authority [of] over his own body but … his wife.
Do not deprive each other except perhaps by mutual consent and for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer.
Then come together again so that Satan will not tempt you because of your lack of self-control.
I say this as a concession, not as a command. I wish that all of you were as I am. But each of you has your own gift from God; one has this gift, another has that. 1 Corinthians 7:1–7 (NIV)
 Paul’s concession may be that he allows marriage and marital sex even though he thinks singleness and celibacy is preferable. Or his concession may be that he allows married couples to have brief periods of abstinence for the sake of prayer (an expression of piety) instead of permanent abstinence (continence) (1 Cor. 7:5–6).
© Margaret Mowczko 2015
All Rights Reserved
Postscript: August 26, 2023
Holiness, Sanctification, and 1 Corinthians 7:14
But I (not the Lord) say to the rest: If any brother has an unbelieving wife and she is willing to live with him, he must not divorce her. Also, if any woman has an unbelieving husband and he is willing to live with her, she must not divorce her husband. For the unbelieving husband is made holy by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is made holy by the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean, but as it is they are holy. 1 Corinthians 7:12–14 CSB
What do these verses mean?
In 1 Corinthians 7:12–14, Paul encourages Christians married to non-Christian spouses not to separate. He wanted the Corinthians to know that having sex and procreation with a non-Christian spouse was not a threat to Christian holiness.
Some Christians believed that having sex, especially with an unbelieving spouse, would defile them. Paul says that the opposite is true. He explains that an unbelieving husband is sanctified in, or by, a Christian wife, and an unbelieving wife is sanctified in, or by, a Christian husband (1 Cor. 7:14). An unbelieving spouse is sanctified, made holy, simply by virtue of their association with their Christian spouse, who is a holy child of God, “as if by a sacred contagion.” (See Meyer’s commentary.) So there’s no reason to break up the marriage for reasons of piety.
Paul goes on to say, however, “If the unbeliever leaves, let him leave. A brother or a sister is not bound in such cases” (1 Cor. 7:15f).
© Josh Elliott Photography via Lightstock #61899
Mutuality in Marriage: 1 Corinthians Chapter 7
Paul’s words on divorce, and leaving an abusive marriage
What does submission “in everything” mean? (Eph. 5:24)
Paul and Women, in a Nutshell
1 Corinthians 14:34–35, in a Nutshell
Gender Bias in the NLT
Chastity, Salvation, and 1 Timothy 2:15
New Testament Church Culture: Sexual Licentiousness