The Virgin Mary

“The Virgin and Child Embracing”
Painted by Sassoferrato between 1660-1685.
(Source: Wikimedia)

The Christmas story is full of interesting characters: angels from Heaven, shepherds of the Temple flocks, and astrologers from Persia. But at the centre of this cast of characters is the figure of a young woman, Mary.[1]

A Blessed Woman

God chose to bring his Messiah into the world as a human baby, and he chose Mary as the mother.[2] This was an honour of the highest magnitude. Mary was correct when she prophesied, “From now on, all generations will pronounce me as blessed, for the Mighty One has done great things for me.” (Luke 1:48b-49.)

There are two families of words translated into English as “blessed” in Luke 2: eulogē– words and makari– words. In verse 42, Elizabeth gives her young cousin Mary and her unborn baby a blessing that was not unusual when greeting a pregnant woman: “Blessed (eulogē–) are you among women and blessed (eulogē–) is the fruit of your womb!” (Luke 2:42). These are hoped for blessings. But later in her speech, Elizabeth uses a different blessing word when she says, “Blessed (makari–) is she who has believed that the Lord would fulfill what has been spoken to her!” (Luke 2:45). Mary is blessed. She was blessed because of her faith in God’s promise to her. And in Luke 2:48, Mary acknowledges, “From now on, people will pronounce me as blessed (makari–).”

Mary’s Piety

The Gospels show that Mary was a young woman of great faith and obedience. Her song, the Magnificat, recorded in Luke 1:46-55, reveals that she understood God’s ways. Furthermore, since she was a relation of Elizabeth who was descendent of the first high priest Aaron (Luke 1:5-6), Mary may also have been a descendent of Aaron (Luke 1:36). Mary may have had other qualities besides to make her God’s choice for her extraordinary role.

In some Roman Catholic, High Anglican, and Orthodox teachings, however, Mary’s piety is exaggerated, and it is taught she remained a virgin throughout her life. Some also claim that Mary was herself conceived “immaculately,” that is, she was conceived in her mother’s womb without inheriting a sinful nature.[3] The Bible, however, doesn’t say that Mary remained a virgin—it seems to indicate otherwise—and it tells us nothing about how Mary was conceived.[3]

An Extraordinary Delivery?

There is also a claim that Mary delivered Jesus in some supernatural way. The mid-to-late second-century document, The Infancy Gospel of James (also known as the Protoevangelium of James), contains an account of a woman examining Mary postpartum to determine whether she had given birth to Jesus in the usual way. According to the story, the woman discovers that Mary is still a virgin and “intact.” There is no biblical reason, however, to suspect that there was anything unusual about the way Mary gave birth to Jesus.

Furthermore, there is a common presumption that Mary and Joseph were alone together when Jesus was born. But it is much more likely that Mary was attended by midwives during her labour, while Joseph waited elsewhere, as was the custom.

Some retellings of the Christmas story make it sound as though Jesus was born during the very first night of Joseph and Mary’s stay in Bethlehem, but this may not have been the case. Whatever the case, Mary and Joseph would have made contact with the midwives of Bethlehem and asked for their help when the time came for Jesus to be born. Still, Jerome believed that because the biblical text states that Mary wrapped her newborn and she placed him in his manger bed (Luke 2:7), “she was both mother and midwife” (The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed MaryAgainst Helvidius 4).

Mary’s Personality

We know Mary was a fit young woman, capable of making long journeys, and we know she was a devout Jew with great faith in God. But what do we know about her personality?

Many Christmas cards and religious artworks show Mary, usually dressed in blue,[4] with her eyes averted and looking down. This downward turned face makes her look rather passive and shy. Yet in the Bible verses that mention her, Mary does not seem to be either passive or shy. Instead, she is active and assertive (e.g., Luke 1:39; John 2:1-5). My friend Julie Frady has observed that in the Gospels, “Mary was always going somewhere, doing something, and speaking her mind.” [Julie has an interesting take on Mary’s conversation with Gabriel. Read it here.]

There is no doubt that Mary went through some very tough times during her lifetime (Luke 2:34-35). However, the Bible does not glorify her sufferings, and neither should we. Perhaps Mary had a bright personality and good humour that helped her to be a wonderful mother despite difficult situations. We know that the Holy Spirit came upon Mary when she conceived Jesus, and the scriptures often associate the Holy Spirit with joy. So perhaps Mary, like Jesus, was a joyful person (John 17:13).  [See video below.] 

I have yet to see a portrait of Mary with a beaming smile on her face. It seems that for many, a happy confident smiling face is incompatible with notions of piety and holiness.

Mary’s Enduring Faith

Mary was not only the mother of Jesus, she was also a true believer in him. More than anyone, she knew that Jesus was truly the Son of God. And when Jesus began his earthly ministry at the age of 30, Mary was a loyal follower. She was there at the cross when her son was debased, tortured, and killed. And she would have been among the first to learn from the women that her son was alive again.

After Jesus had completed his mission and returned to heaven, Mary is mentioned as being with the believers who were meeting together in Jerusalem and waiting for the promised Holy Spirit (Acts 1:12-14). According to tradition, she later travelled to Ephesus with John, the apostle, and they ministered there for many years until her death. Mary proved to be a faithful servant of God.

Once when Jesus was teaching, a woman called out to him and said, “Blessed (makari–) is the mother who gave you birth and nursed you.” Jesus did not affirm this blessing. He responded with, “Blessed (makari–) rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it.” (See Luke 11:27-28).[5] Mary was greatly blessed. She was the mother who gave birth to Jesus and nursed him, and she had heard the word of God and obeyed it.

Part 7 »


Footnotes

[1] Many early church theologians saw Mary as being the antithesis of Eve, and the antidote to Eve’s sin. Even though Adam and Eve both ate the forbidden fruit and both were culpable of sin, early church theologians emphasised Eve’s doubt, disobedience and pride as being instrumental in bringing sin into the world. Conversely, they highlighted Mary’s faith, obedience and humility as being instrumental in bringing salvation into the world. While the comparison of Eve and Mary is interesting, it should not be pushed too far. What we do know is that Mary’s son Jesus Christ would die sacrificially on our behalf and that he redeemed both men and women from sin and death. [More on this here.]

[2] It is amazing to consider that Jesus left the glories and privileges of heaven for a womb and entered the world through a birth canal. Jesus’ self-sacrifice during his incarnation, and throughout his earthly ministry, is astounding!

[3] Mary conceived Jesus miraculously when the Holy Spirit overshadowed her. Mary was a virgin when this occurred and she remained a virgin until Jesus was born. The inference from Matthew 1:24-25 is that, sometime after Jesus was born, Mary and Joseph began having sex like any normal married couple. Furthermore, we know that Jesus had brothers and sisters (Matt 13:55-56; Mark 6:3; John 2:12, 7:3-5; Acts 1:14; 1 Cor 9:5; Gal 1:19). Roman Catholicism teaches that these brothers and sisters were children of a different Mary, and were not the children of Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Orthodox Church teaches that these brothers and sisters were children of Joseph by a previous marriage. The mid-second century document, The Infancy Gospel of James relates that Joseph was a widower with children when he married Mary. In the New Testament, however, Jesus’ brothers and sisters are associated with Mary the mother of Jesus (John 2:12; Acts 1:14).

F.F. Bruce infers from the scriptures that Jesus’ siblings “were children of Mary; the burden of proof rests on those who interpret the relationship differently.” Bruce doesn’t mention the Infancy Gospel of James, but he writes the following in footnote 3 on page 88.

[In the fourth century,] Epiphanius (Heresies, 78) argued that they were children of Joseph by a previous wife. Then Helvidius of Rome restated the interpretation (already maintained by Tertullian and others) that they were children of Joseph and Mary, born after Jesus. In reply to Helvidius, Jerome propounded a new theory: that they were cousins of Jesus, children of Alphaeus by “Mary of Clopas”, whom he inferred from John 19:25 to be the Virgin’s sister (Aduersis de perpetua uirginitate beatae Mariae [The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary]).
Bruce, Men and Movements in the Primitive Church: Studies in Non-Pauline Christianity by F.F. Bruce (Exeter: Paternoster, 1979), 88.

There is nothing in the biblical Gospel accounts that suggest that Mary herself was conceived immaculately (the Immaculate Conception), that she gave birth to Jesus miraculously, that she remained a virgin perpetually, that she was transported to heaven with her body and soul united (the Assumption of Mary), that she can hear our prayers, or that she had (or has) any kind of special powers.

Mary should be revered as a woman of faith and the mother of the Messiah but only God should be the recipient of our devotion and veneration. Moreover, our prayers should be directed to God, and not to Mary or any other person or saint. Excessive devotion to Mary is a form of idolatry. Our hope, trust, devotion and prayers should be given to God alone.

[4] In traditional religious art, Mary is often dressed in blue and white. It is unlikely that Mary wore clothes made of expensive blue fabric or impractical white. However, there is no reason to suppose that Mary was poor.

[5] More about Luke 11:27-28 in my article, Is Motherhood the Highest Calling for Women? here.

© 19th of December 2010, Margaret Mowczko

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Christmas Cardology Series

(1) Introduction
(2) Mary’s Scandal and Favour
(3) Nazareth to Bethlehem
(4) Was Jesus born in a barn?
(5) When was Jesus born?
(7) The Wise Men from the East

A powerful, short post: Mary Consoles Eve