Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism

Bible Women Deborah Huldah, Samson's mother, wailing women, Abel Beth Macaah

Miriam, a prophetess who led Israel with her brothers Moses and Aaron (Micah 6:4).
Extract from a painting by Anselm Friedrich Feuerbach

 This article is also available in Spanish here.

Authorised by God

Spiritual authority is a difficult concept to define comprehensively;[1] however, it is closely linked with hearing from God and being commissioned by God for ministry and service. Some Christians, called complementarians, believe that it is only men, and not women, who have been given spiritual authority by God in the church and in the family.[2] Complementarians believe that as the spiritual authorities, it is men who need to seek God’s will and guidance on behalf of the church community. They believe it is only male ministers who have the spiritual authority to hear from God in order to minister from “the Word” in a public church meeting. And they believe that in the family, it is the husband who has direct authority from God and that the husband has the final word on any decisions. They see the husband as the mediator of God’s will to the wife and any children.

In contrast to what complementarians believe, the Bible contains several accounts where God bypassed husbands and male guardians and spoke to women with messages of vital significance. Where God did not speak personally, he sent angels. This article looks at a few of these Bible women who God entrusted with spiritual authority, women authorised by God and who acted without the permission or protection of men.


Samson’s Mother (Judges chapter 13)

In Judges chapter 13 we read that the Angel of the LORD[3] went to an unnamed woman and revealed to her God’s plan for Israel’s deliverance. This woman was married to a man named Manoah, and yet the Angel entrusted God’s plans and instructions to the wife and not the husband. The Angel told her that she would bear a special son, and her son would deliver Israel from the Philistines. And the Angel gave her instructions about her diet and he told her never to cut her son’s hair.

The woman told her husband about her encounter. Manoah wanted to hear the instructions for himself, so he asked God to send the man of God (i.e. the Angel) again. He wanted to know how to bring up the child (Judg. 13:8). God answered his prayer but, again, the Angel appeared to the woman. So she ran to get her husband. When Manoah met the Angel, the Angel repeated what he had said previously to the woman:

“Your wife must do all that I have told her. She must not eat . . . . She must do everything I have told her.” (Judges 13:13-14, my underlines.)

God fully trusted the woman to obey and follow these instructions without her husband’s permission or help.

The woman recognised from the beginning that the messenger “looked like an angel of God, very awesome” (Judg. 13:6). Manoah, on the other hand, did not realise that the messenger was an angel until he offered a burnt sacrifice and the Angel of the Lord ascended in the flames and disappeared (Judg. 13:17). Terrified, he said to his wife, “We are doomed to die, we have seen the Lord.” The woman prudently replied, “If the Lord had meant to kill us he would not have accepted the burnt offering.” Throughout this narrative, the woman shows herself to be both spiritually discerning and sensible.

Deborah (Judges chapters 4-5)

No list of women with spiritual authority would be complete without Deborah who was the leader of Israel at some point in their history. Judges chapters 4 and 5 records Deborah’s leadership and does not mention that there was anything peculiar about her being both a leader and a woman. In fact, her gender does not seem to have been an issue at all. Deborah may have been married—she is described as “a woman/wife of Lappidoth”—but the Bible mentions nothing at all about her husband, apart from his name. (Judg. 4:4). (This assumes Lappidoth is her husband’s name and is not a description of Deborah’s splendid or fiery nature.)

In Judges chapter 5 we read that prior to Deborah’s leadership “village life in Israel had ceased” (Judg. 5:7), “the roads were abandoned” (Judg. 5:6), and Israel had chosen false gods (Judg. 5:8). The implication is that Israelite society became more civilised, safer, and more God-fearing because of Deborah’s leadership.

Deborah was an excellent and versatile leader. She was a prophet (Judg. 4:4, 14), a judge (Judg. 4:5), a military leader (Judg. 4:6-10), a matriarch (Judg. 5:7). Deborah’s prophetic insight was accurate and she showed decisive leadership in military matters.

Some have unfairly speculated that Deborah became a leader because there were no men capable of the task. However, the scriptures tell us that Israel was not without male leaders at that time. Judges chapter 5 mentions leaders (Judg. 5:2-3), nobles (Judg. 5:13), princes (Judg. 5:2, 9, 15), and warriors. Moreover, it is evident that Deborah encouraged other leaders in Israel and that these leaders had great confidence in her leadership. [More about Deborah and the “no available men” argument here.]

In comparison with the other judges mentioned in the book of Judges, who were all men and mostly flawed, there is not one negative word said about Deborah. Yet complementarians continue to assert that leadership and spiritual authority is for men only. Rather than seeing Deborah as a scriptural precedent for women in leadership ministry, they dismiss Deborah as an anomaly. This stance of the complementarians is short-sighted and unjust, especially as Deborah was an outstanding and respected female leader blessed by God.

Other Old Testament Women

The Wise Woman of Abel Beth Maacah: This woman was a person of influence, possibly even the leader of the fortified town of Abel Beth Maacah in Israel. As a civic leader in Israel, like Deborah, she would also have had a degree of spiritual authority. Through her wise use of authority and peaceful persuasion, she rescued her town from being destroyed by Joab, the commander of King David’s army.[4] (See 2 Sam. 20:14ff esp v22).

Joab and David had no problem with heeding the good advice of women. Joab knew that David listened to women,[5] so when he was unsuccessful in persuading David about a certain cause of action he asked the Wise Woman of Tekoa to help him (2 Sam. 14ff). The Wise Woman of Tekoa and the Wise Woman of Abel Beth Maacah are not the same person. “Wise Woman” may be a leadership title and not just a description. Wise women may have functioned as living repositories of wisdom and lore passed on orally.

King Lemuel’s Mother: Proverbs 31:1-9 contains the words of an oracle (prophecy) of King Lemuel’s mother. This woman taught her son—a grown man and a king—this oracle. Her inspired words have been recorded in Scripture for other grown men and kings to learn from. [More on King Lemuel’s mother here.]

Huldah: When Josiah, King of Judah, wanted to learn more about how to worship God, he sent a delegation of his top men to “inquire of the LORD.” They went to a woman, to the prophetess Huldah (2 Chron. 34:19-33).

Linda L. Belleville writes:

The size and prestige of the embassy that sought her counsel indicates something about not only the seriousness of the situation but also Huldah’s professional stature: the High Priest (Hilkiah), the father of the future governor (Ahikam), the son of a prophet (Achbor), the secretary of state (Shaphan) and the king’s officer (Asaiah). Huldah’s counsel was immediately heeded, and sweeping religious reforms resulted (2 Kings 22:8-20; 23:1-25).[6]

[More about Huldah here.]

The Wailing Women: During the dark days of Judah’s apostasy, when deception was rife (Jer. 9:4-6), the only people who listened to God and the prophet Jeremiah were some women. God gave the skilled wailing women a message and he authorised them to proclaim this message in his name. (See Jer. 9:17-22.) [More on Wailing Women here.]

A Shunammite woman came up with the inspired idea of building a small room to accommodate the prophet Elisha. Her perception, initiative and generosity brought great blessing to her, to her husband and to her son. When reading her story in 2 Kings 4:8-37, we can see that this woman had spiritual insight and fortitude. The Shunammite woman, and not her husband (2 Kings 4:23a), displayed and exercised authority for the benefit of her family.

Hannah is the main protagonist in the narrative of 1 Samuel chapter 1. She prays for a child, vows to give that child back to God to be employed in Tabernacle service, and then fulfils her vow. Hannah’s husband, Elkanah, is portrayed as loving and supportive. He trusted in his wife’s decisions and actions, and complied with them. Apart from 1 Samuel 1:19b, it appears that Elkanah did not mediate or intervene in the situation at all. Furthermore, Hannah’s prayer in 1 Samuel 2:1-10 is part of Holy Scripture, and has the authority of Scripture.


Mary the Mother of Jesus (Luke 1:26-38)

The most well-known woman in the New Testament is Mary the mother of Jesus. Most scholars believe that she was a young teenager when she was visited by the angel Gabriel. Despite her age and her gender, God sent the angel directly to Mary with the message that she had been chosen for the wonderful role of being the mother of the Messiah. Mary would have been under the protection of a guardian, who was very likely male, and she was betrothed to a man named Joseph, yet the angel Gabriel took God’s word directly to this teenage girl.[7]

If the complementarian concept of male authority is valid, one would assume that Gabriel would have visited the senior male of Mary’s family with the news, especially considering the ramifications of the remarkable, and potentially scandalous, situation Mary would soon find herself in.

Mary’s humble compliance with God’s extraordinary calling on her life is exemplary.[8] Moreover Luke recorded Mary’s faith-filled song of praise, often called the Magnificat, in his Gospel (Luke 1:46-55). These words of Mary have the authority of Holy Scripture.[9]

Mary Magdalene (Matt. 28:9-10; Mark 16:9-11; John 20:17-18)

It is difficult to overestimate the significance of the fact that the first person to see Jesus alive after his crucifixion and resurrection was a woman. Did Mary just happen to be at the right place at the right time for this monumentally momentous meeting with the newly risen Jesus, or was it a divinely appointed encounter?

I believe it is no coincidence that the first person Jesus saw after his resurrection, at the dawning of the New Covenant, was a woman. Jesus’ act of redemption and his inauguration of the New Covenant brought equality for all people, regardless of gender. And with equality, the real possibility of affinity and harmony between the sexes, reversing the divisive effects of sin.

At their meeting, Jesus authorises and entrusts Mary with certain messages for his disciples who, as yet, still believed that their Lord and friend, along with their hopes, was dead.

Mary Magdalene went to the disciples with the news: “I have seen the Lord!” And she told them that he had said these things to her” (John 20:18).

Jesus had no problem authorising and entrusting his marvellous message, that he was alive, to a woman. Jesus’ commission has led the Eastern Orthodox Church to call Mary Magdalene “the apostle to the apostles.” [More on Mary Magdalene here.]

Martha (John chapter 11)

Martha has been unfairly maligned by some because of just one incident (Luke 10:38-42). However, she made two very astute statements of faith concerning Jesus and eternal life recorded in John chapter 11.

Martha answered, “I know he [her deceased brother Lazarus] will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.”  John 11:24
“Yes, Lord,” she told him, “I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.” John 11:27

This second statement is very similar to Peter’s recorded in Matthew 16:15-17:

“But what about you?” he [Jesus] asked. “Who do you say I am?”
Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven.”

Jesus states that Peter could not have known that he was the Christ, the Son of God, unless God the Father had revealed it to him. Likewise, Martha’s faith statements could only have come by divine inspiration.

Martha and her sister Mary of Bethany were devoted disciples of Jesus. But we hear nothing about their brother Lazarus’s faith in the Scriptures even though it says, “Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus” (John 11:5). Here Martha’s name appears first. She was a woman of great faith and spiritual acuity. [More on Martha and Mary of Bethany here.]

Other New Testament Women

Since Pentecost, God has communicated personally with his people more freely, through the agency of the Holy Spirit. When Peter quoted Joel’s prophecy on the day of Pentecost in Acts 2, he made it clear that spiritual abilities, in particular, prophecy, were now freely available to both men and women, to the young and to the old (Acts 2:17-18).

The Holy Spirit gives his gifts and abilities without apparent regard to gender (1 Cor 12:4-11); this includes the gifts of leading and teaching (Rom 12:6-8). Even staunch complementarian Mary Kassian observes, “There is no evidence in the Bible that gifts are assigned by gender. While it is true that [male] elders may possess gifts of teaching, administration, and pastoring, it is equally true that women possess these identical gifts.”[10]

In fact, several women are mentioned by name in the New Testament who functioned as church leaders and ministers: Philip’s daughters, Priscilla with Aquila, Nympha, Phoebe, Junia with Andronicus, Euodia and Syntyche, etc.


Mary Kassian and other complementarians have recognised that women tend to hear from God more than men, and yet they maintain that it is the men who have the spiritual authority in the church and home.[11] When I read the arguments of complementarians, I get the sense that they do not have confidence in the abilities of women. They seem worried that society will crumble if women take more initiative or move outside of certain roles that they erroneously claim have been instituted by God. It seems that complementarians have overlooked the biblical examples where God used and blessed courageous women for his purposes, often in vitally important situations that had widespread ramifications.

From the Scriptures, we can see that God does not speak solely to men and husbands, even in matters that directly affect them and their families. God can and does entrust his word, with the authority it entails, directly to women and wives. God can and does speak to women without using husbands, fathers and male church leaders as mediators. All believers have direct access to God through Jesus and his Holy Spirit, and vice versa.

There is one mediator between God and people (or humankind), the person (or human being) Christ Jesus. 1 Timothy 2:5


[1] Complementarian Mary Kassian defines “authority” purely in terms of hierarchical structures. Mary A. Kassian, Women, Creation and the Fall (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1990), 32-33.

[2] Complementarians interpret the two instances (Eph. 5:23; 1 Cor. 11:3) where Paul says that the husband, or man, is the ‘head’ (Greek–kephalē) of the wife, or woman, as meaning that the husband has authority, including spiritual authority, over the wife. This interpretation presumes that the English (metaphorical) meaning for “head” is the same as the Greek (metaphorical) meaning for “head.” In English, “head” can mean “chief” or “a person in authority,” etc. However, in Hellenistic Greek, of which New Testament Greek is a subset, “head” rarely, if ever, meant “chief” or “authority” in texts originally written in Greek. Moreover, complementarians elaborate on the supposed spiritual authority of the husband in ways that are not supported by Scripture. [My article on Kephalē and “Male Headship” in Paul’s Letters here.]
The authority that the Holy Spirit gives is a functional authority to engage effectively in certain ministries. It is not an authority over a capable, fellow brother or sister in Christ.

[3] Many theologians believe the Angel of the Lord may have been a Theophany or Christophany: a pre-incarnate appearance of Jesus Christ.

[4] Joab and his brothers Abishai and Asahel, who were all great warriors in David’s army, are frequently mentioned as being the offspring of their mother Zeruiah. Their father’s name is never mentioned. One cannot help wondering what sort woman Zeruiah was, and what sort of influence she may have had on her sons. (See 1 Sam. 26:6; 2 Sam. 2:13,18; 3:39; 8:16; 14:1; 16:9-10; 17:25; 18: 2; 19:21-23; 21:17; 23:18, 37; 1 Kings 1:7; 2:5, 22; 1 Chron. 2:16; 11:6, 39; 18:12, 15; 26:28; 27: 24.) Zeruiah was one of David’s sisters (1 Chron. 2:13-16).

[5] David listened to Abigail (1 Sam. 25:23-35) and to Bathsheba (1 Kings 1:11-31), etc.

[6] Linda L. Belleville, “Women Leaders in the Bible” in Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity without Hierarchy, Ronald W. Pierce and Rebecca Merrill Groothuis (ed) (Leicester: InterVaristy Press, 2004) 110-125, 113.

[7] Only later did the angel tell Joseph about God’s plan for Mary.

[8] Mary’s humble and obedient response to the angelic message is a contrast to the disbelief of  Zechariah, the priest (Luke 1:19-20).

[9] The inspired songs, prayers, praises and teachings of Miriam (Exod. 15:20-21), Deborah (Judg. 5:1ff), Hannah (1 Sam. 2:1ff), Abigail (1 Sam. 25:28-31), King Lemuel’s Mother (Prov. 31:1-9), Mary (Luke 1:46ff) and Elizabeth (Luke 1:41ff) are considered prophetic and are included in Scripture.

[10] Kassian, Women, Creation and the Fall, 168.

[11] Mary Kassian has observed, “. . . both psychology and history lend credible support to the biblical recognition of innate differences between men and women, with a major difference being a heightened spiritual perceptiveness in women.” Kassian, Women, Creation and the Fall, 111. Sadly, Kassian sees this heightened spiritual perceptiveness as including a general propensity towards spiritual deception among women. (The Bible never states that women are more easily deceived than men.) Despite believing that women are prone to deception, Mary Kassian has a public ministry as a Christian speaker and writer.

© 12th of October, 2010; Margaret Mowczko

Related Articles

The (im)Propriety of Bible Women with Authority
New Testament Women Church Leaders

Paul’s (Gender-inclusive) Qualifications for Church Leaders
Old Testament Priests and New Testament Ministers
Leading Together in the Home
The Women who Protected Moses

artigos em portugues sobre igualdade entre homens e mulheres no lar e na igreja

19 thoughts on “Bible Women with Spiritual Authority

  1. This is excellent! Your study is very comprehensive. I learned a lot!

    1. While I appreciate and even accept the study put forward on women as spiritual leaders in the church, there is one question unanswered. Is there any evidence of any of the spiritual women been anointed? Priest, kings were anointed but were any of the women anointed?

      1. Hi Wayne,

        I can’t think of a story where a woman was anointed with oil for leadership. As you say, priests and kings were anointed, but no women, and only a tiny fraction of the male population, were priests or kings.

        In the New Covenant, all followers of Jesus, male and female, are part of his priesthood, and only Jesus is king. 🙂

  2. So refreshing. I enjoyed this, thanks a lot.

  3. Wonderful information –

  4. I was reading Genesis 25 recently and was struck by the fact that while Isaac entreated the Lord for Rebekah and she conceived, she personally went to the Lord to ask about the struggle in her womb and God spoke to her about it and gave her the prophecy that the elder would serve the younger. Isaac later ignored that prophecy and tried to circumvent it by giving his blessing to Esau anyway, but Rebekah intervened and Jacob was blessed.

    1. Yes, God had no problem with telling Rebekah, a woman, how things would pan out.

      It’s such an interesting story. It intrigues me that there is no hint of censure about Rebekah’s actions in the Bible even thought she totally tricked her husband into doing something he clearly didn’t want to do.

  5. This is very interesting. I believe in order for society to function at its fullest, we need both men and women of Christian Faith in every walk of life, we need both men and women in STEM fields, we need both men and women at the front lines of the film and music industry (an industry that’s increasingly important Christians enter), we need both men and women in ministry (including ALL leadership positions), we need both men and women in the arts, we need both men and women in education, we need both men and women in our military, we need both men and women in the criminal justice field, and we need both stay-at-home moms and stay-at-home dads.

    1. I agree entirely. It is a person’s capability that determines what he or she should do. Not their gender. Men and women working together bring a great synergy to just about every project and role.

  6. Great article. I have learnt a lot. Thanks

  7. Thanks Marg! I’m enjoying reading your articles…especially this one. One thought I’ve been dwelling on recently is the seriousness of prophecy, that if someone prophecies falsely, that they are to be put to death. That indicates the gravity of their spiritual authority. Complementarians might be okay with a woman prophesying, but they claim it’s not the same authority as preaching. Huh??? But no where in the Bible is “Put false preachers or elders to death.” So wouldn’t prophets hold a higher responsibility?

    I really can’t understand why complementarias can’t let go of the idea that a church has to be four walls, and only a man can preach. When I brought up John 4 to my pastor, he said that the Samaritan woman was merely transmitting information and not preaching. I responded that the early church didn’t necessarily have four walls, and that many people believed because of her testimony. She was like John the Baptist.

    I get very offended by complementarianians who claim that egals don’t hold to a high view of Scripture. Then they minimize Deborah, Huldah, Mary(s), Nymphia, 2 John, etc.

    Another thought that’s probing my mind…American slavery (I know you’re Australian 🙂 American slave holders used Scripture (mainly Lev 25, Gen 16, and Philemon) to justify slavery, claiming that God endorsed slavery… and then accused anyone who opposed them of not having a high view of Scripture. Christian abolitionists had difficulty in using Scripture to support their cause, but claimed that the overall principles of the Bible were justice, equality and no hierarchy. I see the same way of reasoning for keeping women silent ((please know that I’m not saying that my being silenced is at the same level of the brutality and torture of Black slavery))

    1. Hi Jamie,

      ~ In Paul’s lists of ministries, he always lists prophecy and prophet before teaching and teachers. He considered prophecy to be a very important and influential ministry.

      ~ I agree that traditional ideas of “church” are something that hinders people from seeing that women can also minister. Some people just can’t get past the idea that only an ordained man can preach a sermon from a pulpit on a Sunday morning. But this idea has no basis whatsoever in the New Testament.

      ~ It is frustrating that some complementarians claim egalitarians don’t have a high view of scripture. It’s simply untrue.

      It sounds like we’re on the same page. 🙂

  8. Thanks Marg!

    Again, I’m reading your articles for several hours a day, and loving them! Your articles, and your comments to others’ replies have been super helpful as I defend egalitarian views, while refuting complementarian views. Over the past two months, I’ve been unraveling just how deeply complementarian my new church is…they even point to eternal subordination in the Trinity for their gender role views. I’ve been challenging this male-only elder-led church, and your articles have helped me articulate my arguments while maintaining Biblical integrity.

    Question (I know this is off topic from the thread and your article): how do you refute “Eve created as a helper”? I know that the word for “helper” is the same used when God described himself…16 times in the Hebrew Scriptures, right? But I don’t know the scripture references for these 16 times. And “helper” is also used several times to describe military equals, but again, I don’t know the references.
    And, even after pointing out to a staunch complementarian that “helper” is used in these other contexts, but still believe that “helper” for women means traditional gender roles, how do you refute that?



    1. Hi Jamie,

      I list all the verses that contain the noun ezer (“help/er”) at the bottom of this post: https://margmowczko.com/a-suitable-helper/

      I have several articles where I discuss what Eve as helper does and doesn’t mean. They are tagged with “Suitable Helper”: https://margmowczko.com/tag/a-suitable-helper/

      Happy reading

  9. This site claims that because of the parts of the new testament that say for women to be silent and that men are the heads of women, that Deborah having authority teaching men, as well as other female prophets, would violate the bible. https://wels.net/serving-you/christian-life/womens-ministry/ministry-ideas/deborah-a-woman-of-influence/ So the author makes excuses to justify believing their roles weren’t as significant as their male counterparts, because they are given different descriptions that apparently denote less authority and that female prophets never prophesied in public, but male prohets did, and that Deborah believed Barak should have more honor than herself. She teaches about how God can’t contradict himself but hypocritically ignores the accounts of women teaching men with God given authority to make it seem like those texts are misunderstood, instead of the interpretations of the oft quoted verses by complimentarians being inconsistent with the female prophets.

    1. Hi Eric,

      I often hear people explain away the significance and scope of Deborah’s leadership and the significance and scope of the ministries of Huldah, Anna, Priscilla and other women. These people explain away numerous Bible verses for the sake of a small number of verses that do limit the ministry of certain women. Moreover, they give these very few verses precedence. They have failed to see that these few verses were addressing problem behaviour rather than making general statements about women and ministry.

      The author of the article you linked to wonders “how all this [Deborah’s leadership] fits with Scripture’s clear directive that women should not have spiritual authority over men.” No doubt the author is alluding to 1 Timothy 2:12. But (1) 1 Timothy 2:12 is not as clear as she assumes; (2) this verse is not a directive about women (plural); and (3) it says nothing about normal or healthy authority, let alone spiritual authority.

      Here are two of my articles about Deborah.

      Here are my articles on 1 Timothy 2:12.

  10. I do like your article however I don’t see where it is clear that you’re talking about women being able to hear and be used of God vs. in a place of leadership. I see that Adam was first created then eve was brought to Adam as his Helper made comparable to him. It was clear that Paul stated that he did not permit a woman to be in a place of authority due to Eve being deceived which he stated that this was the reason. It appears that the rules out the reasoning due to current cultural reason but due directly because Eve was deceived and Adam was dealt with by God as he was responsible for the situation. I see in all the writings when it comes to leadership in the home and church it is clear from scripture. I am actually on the fence or in the middle if you will as I see Deborah as a Judge and yet she told Barak that he needed to go to war without her so that she would not receive the glory for the victory. You stated that Complementarians believe itis God that is to seek God and hear for direction. I don’t think all believe this. In fact, you can see that God used so many women in so many places in the bible. The areas that you don’t see it is in leading the church or family. I seems that one has to stretch to find woman leading the family or the church. It also appears that you have to go beyond what the multitude of scholars and tehologens have stated and how they have interpreted the bible as in the AMPC you can see that great detail was taken to correctly interpret what the word states. I hear a lot of words like Patriarchy and Hierarchy, unfortunately, I don’t believe this is the view of most who take the scripture for their final word on the issue. They don’t see women is less than or unequal . I think its a desire to adhear to what the bible actually says and exegesis instead of eisegesis. All this to say I am searching for the truth to be revealed in scripture not what I want it to say

    1. Hi Earnest,

      I have over 400 blog posts on this website. I have other articles that discuss headship (here), Eve as helper (here), Eve’s deception (here), and some of the other things you mention.

      This article discusses spiritual authority. In particular, I claim that hearing from God, or being spoken to by God, constitutes some kind of authorisation from God. I stand by this claim.

      It seems you are applying eisegesis to my article rather than reading what I actually say.

      I don’t equate spiritual authority with leadership in this article. The only person I have used the word “leader” for in this article is Deborah. The Bible tells us that she was judging (i.e. leading) Israel. I also mention in passing that Philip’s daughters, Priscilla with Aquila, Nympha, Phoebe, Junia with Andronicus, Euodia and Syntyche, were church leaders and ministers. But this is a side thought.

      Perhaps my main point is: “God can and does speak to women without using husbands, fathers and male church leaders as mediators.” Do you have an issue with this point?

      Also, 1 Timothy 2:12 is not as clear as you seem to think it is. I write about several hermeneutical challenges in this verse here.

      Like you, I want to understand what the Bible actually says.

      1. I believe that the principle of love is being used by god in spiritually equipping either women or men to undertake what His Most Highness,the holy god wants them to do…GOD IS LOVE..

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