Some Christians in modern westernised countries seem to long for an earlier time when most middle-class women stayed at home and stayed out of the workforce. Some of these Christians even believe the Bible teaches that the woman’s primary domain is in the home where her primary responsibility is to care for her husband and children, the presumption being that all women will marry and have children. They also believe the man’s primary domain is public, outside of the home, where he has various responsibilities including working for money. The only time the Bible mentions that women should stay at home, however, is in two instructions regarding young idle women. In this article, I look especially at Paul’s instruction in Titus 2:4–5.
The Context of Titus 2:4–5
In his letter to Titus, who was temporarily stationed in Crete, Paul wrote that the older women should,
“train younger women to love their husbands and love their children, to be self-controlled and pure, to be busy at home [or workers at home], to be kind [or good], and to be submissive to their husbands, so that no one will malign the word of God” (Titus 2:4b–5).
As with every Bible text, we should read these verses with an understanding of the context of the surrounding passage. Titus chapter 2 follows on from Titus 1:10–16 where Paul describes bad behaviours and ascetic ideas (regarding purity and defilement) that were ruining entire households in Crete. The instructions to the young women were, at least in part, a countermeasure to Jewish myths and man-made rules that encouraged asceticism (Tit. 1:14–15).
From other verses in the New Testament and from early church documents, we know that some Christians were renouncing sex and marriage and were not having children (e.g., 1 Cor. 7:1–17; 1 Tim 2:15; 4:3). Some women were staying, or becoming, single and independent of husbands and families ties. With a narrow view of piety, they were freeing themselves from domestic responsibilities. Paul’s words in Titus 2:4–5 are partly a response to this phenomenon that threatened the reputation of the church.
The Basics of Titus 2:4–5
The content of the training in Titus 2:4–5 is basic and may imply that some of the young women of Crete were negligent wives and mothers and were abandoning their household responsibilities, either due to notions of piety or because of laziness (cf. Tit. 1:12). While the teaching is basic, it is also important. Moreover, much of it can apply to more people than just young wives.
~ It is important for wives to love their husbands. It is also important for husbands to love their wives (Eph. 5:25).
~ It is important for women to love their children. It is also important for men to love their children (cf. Eph. 5:2).
~ It is important for young women to be self-controlled (sōphrōn) and pure. It is also important for young men to be self-controlled and pure (2 Tim. 2:22).
~ It is important for women to be kind. It is important for everyone to be kind (Col. 3:12).
~ It is important for wives to be submissive—deferential, humble, cooperative, supportive and loyal—to their own husbands. It is also important for husbands to be submissive—deferential, humble, cooperative, supportive and loyal—to their wives (1 Pet. 3:7 cf. Eph. 5:21). (Note that the word “obedient” in the King James Version is not the most precise or accurate translation of hupotassō in Titus 2:5.)
Was it also important that the young wives of Crete be busy at home? If the alternative was being lazy and idle (cf. Tit. 1:12–13), or being single and relying on church support (cf. 1 Tim. 5:9–15), then yes, they should be busy at home.
Being mostly housebound and occupied with work such as spinning and weaving was the usual socially acceptable situation for respectable Roman matrons in some parts of the Greco-Roman world. In western society today, however, young women have much more freedom and they can choose to use their talents and gifts to be useful and productive inside or outside their homes without causing a scandal. (See Matthew 25:14–30 NRSV.)
Does Titus 2:4-5 Define Womanhood?
Unlike what some Christians suggest, Titus 2:4–5 does not equate womanhood with being homemakers. Paul’s directive in Titus 2:4–5 was appropriate for the young wives in Crete at that time, yet these instructions do not define these women or women in general. None of the biblical authors attempts to define “womanhood.” Instead, the Bible shows that some women, even in ancient times, were involved in all kinds of ventures, ministries, and roles with God’s blessing.
Furthermore, nowhere does the New Testament give any indication that young girls or older women should always be confined to the home or restricted to domestic duties. There are Bible women who did important things outside their homes without any mention that they were doing wrong. I list some of these women here.
Paul’s instructions in Titus 2:4–5 and in 1 Timothy 5:14 were specifically related to young women of childbearing age and are similar to instructions written by pagan authors of the time. Paul’s instructions directly reflect the cultural values of his day. Since his words relate to a group of women in a culture different from our own, some concepts may not be applicable to all women everywhere. The principle behind his instruction, however, continues to have relevance.
The Timeless Principle in Titus 2
Paul’s principle is that Christians should not behave in ways that their society finds offensive, or in ways that society believes are disruptive to social harmony. Otherwise, Christians may find themselves bringing disrepute to God and Christian doctrine (Tit. 2:5, 8, 9–10).
Modern western society is moving towards regarding and treating men and women as social equals. Equality and mutuality are seen by many as the ideal. The clearly delineated gender roles that were part of a particular demographic of past ages and previous generations are now recognised as not being appropriate or practical for all people and all marriages. Every person is unique and every marriage is unique. Not everyone, for example, fits the mould of post-war, white, middle-class gender roles that some presume to be “biblical.”
Churches and Christians in western society who insist that men and women follow fixed hierarchical gender roles, roles that include women staying at home and only men being productive outside the home, are giving the church and God’s word a bad name, the very thing Paul wanted to avoid.
What was socially respectable in Cretan society in the first century differs from what is socially acceptable in western society today. Yet, even in the first century, it was sometimes possible for gifted and enterprising women to rise above social norms and not cause disgrace. Nowadays it seems to be that some sectors of the church are disgracing themselves in contemporary society by limiting, restricting, and subordinating their women.
The Bible never tries to make the case that women should not work or have influential roles outside the home. The Old and New Testaments show us that many godly women were not confined to the domestic domain. New Testament women such as Lydia, Priscilla, Phoebe, and Junia, worked, travelled, and had influential leadership roles in ministry. Paul did not identify these women primarily by their family relationships or their domestic situations. Instead, they are described and identified by their work, their travels, and their ministries.
I love my husband and my now-grown children. I hope that I am self-controlled and pure, that I manage my home well, and that I am submissive to my husband as he is with me. Most of my work, ministry, and study, as well as family life, in fact, happens at home. But, I also have a life outside of my home. Titus 2:4–5 does not begin to define me or my various and changing roles in life.
 Some material in this post comes from a previous article Working Women in the New Testament here.
 The idea of delineated domestic (or, private) and public domains for women and for men has its origins in Greek philosophy which influenced the Greco-Roman world, including Cretan society. However, in Roman times, domestic and public domains merged. This merging is seen in house churches, for example.
 The other reference is in 1 Timothy 5:14. In his first letter to Timothy, who was temporarily stationed in Ephesus, Paul wrote about the young widows:
“they get into the habit of being idle and going about from house to house. And not only do they become idlers, but also busybodies who talk nonsense, saying things they ought not to. I want younger widows to get married, bear children, keep house, and give the enemy no occasion for reproach” (1 Tim. 5:13–14).
These instructions were designed to keep idle young widows occupied so that they would not give the church a bad name (cf. Titus 2:5, 8, 10). These women were wealthy enough to be idle. A few may have been supported by the church. However, Paul instructs the church to only allow widows over the age of 60 to be enrolled as widows (1 Tim. 5:9). Poorer women worked for their survival. See this comment below for more on the advice that these women were to “keep house” (oikodespotein, related to the noun oikodespotēs).
 Older women or women elders? Some suggest the Greek noun presbytidas (from presbytis) used in Titus 2:3 should be translated as “women elders.” “Women elders” might be the sense here; however, the emphasis is on contrasting the older women with the younger women, just as older men are contrasted with younger men in Titus 2:2 and 2:6. Moreover, it is the adjective presbyteros that typically means “elder,” not the nouns presbytēs (masculine) and presbytis (feminine) that are used in Titus 2:2 and 3.
The feminine word for “elders” is used in 1 Timothy 5:2. Is Paul speaking about female elders here? There is nothing in the New Testament that rules out the possibility that some elders in some churches were women. I suspect Priscilla was an elder of the church at Ephesus when she and her husband corrected the doctrine of Apollos. (I’ve written more on female elders here.)
Note also that Paul does not tell the older women in Crete that they are to teach theology, or the Christian faith, to the younger women. The idea that women can teach other women theology—an idea that is accepted in most churches—has less of a biblical precedent than women teaching theology to men. There are several instances where Bible women taught theology and prophesied to men. I mention all the female prophets in the Bible here.
 Apart from the 4 verses at the beginning and the 4 verses at the end, the letter to Titus is one of the most cohesive of the New Testament letters. The sentences and paragraphs flow and elaborate on one major idea: the conduct of the Christians in Crete. (Unfortunately, the chapter divisions hinder and disguise the flow.)
The Cretans described in Titus 1:10–16 were “unqualified (or unfit) for every good work” (pros pan ergon agathon) (Tit. 1:16). But Paul wanted them “to be ready (or prepared) for every good work” (pros pan ergon agathon) (Tit. 3:1). This repeated phrase highlights Paul’s purpose in his letter to Titus. He wanted the Christians in Crete to behave themselves, do good, and “live sensible, ethical, and godly lives” (Tit. 3:12 CEB). This way the Christian message wouldn’t be maligned, opponents would be silenced, and the teaching would be attractive (Tit. 2:5, 8, 10). Paul’s instructions about the young wives must be read within the context of the whole letter if we want to more fully understand the apostle’s concern and intention, including his heart for evangelism.
 The back story to Titus 2:4–5 is that some young Christian women in Crete were abandoning the usual social responsibilities of young women now that they’d become Christians. The concern was that this could be seen as anti-social behaviour and cause the word of God, and the fledgeling church, to be maligned and discredited by non-Christians.
Later Christian women, such as Jerome’s friend Paula, abandoned the usual roles of respectable women and were praised for it. These women refused to get married, or they refused to marry again after the death of their first husband, and they sometimes left the care of their children to others. They did this in order to follow ascetic ideals tied to notions of Christian piety. The difference between the first-century Cretan women and Paula and her fourth-century contemporaries was that Christianity became a legal and established religion after the Edict of Milan in 310.
 Keeper at Home The United Bible Society Greek New Testament has oikourgous, the accusative plural of oikourgos, in Titus 2:5. Oikourgos (with the letter gamma) means “a worker at home” (oikos = house + ergos = worker.)
There is a textual variant however: oikourous (without a gamma), is the accusative plural of oikouros, and literally means “house-keeper” (oikos = house + ouros = keeper or guardian.) This word is found in Titus 2:5 of later Greek manuscripts and in editions such as Stephanus (1550) and the Textus Receptus.
I’ve written more about these two Greek words in Titus 2:5 here.
 The idle young wives and young widows Paul refers to in Titus 2:5 and 1 Timothy 5:14 would have had household slaves for the mundane and difficult domestic duties. In these verses, Paul is speaking about the management of the home including socially respectable occupations such as spinning and weaving.
 The pagan Theano, for example, instructed the younger women to listen to the teaching of older women:
Indeed, to you younger women authority has been given by custom to rule over the household slaves once you have been married, but the teaching (didaskalia) ought to come from the older women (presbyterōn) because they are forever giving advice about household management. For it is good first to learn the things you do not know and to consider the counsel of the older women the most suitable; for a young soul must be brought up in these teachings from girlhood.
Quoted by Annette Bourland Huizenga in her book Moral Education for Women in the Pastoral and Pythagorean Letters: Philosophers of the Household (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill, 2013), 50.
 Ancient Greek Epitaphs Identical and similar words as those in Titus 2:4–5 are frequently found on epitaphs expressing the virtues of wives who were not Christians. Some of these words more rarely occur on inscriptions about men, such as for the gymnasiarch Sarapion who is described as loving his children (philotekne) and wife (philogynaie). IGA 2.371; SB 1 (1915) 411.
The following is a sample of inscriptions commemorating women. I’ve indicated the virtues that are mentioned in Titus 2:4–5 and elsewhere in the so-called pastoral epistles. There is no indication the women in these inscriptions were Christians.
On the coffin cartonnage of a pagan Roman woman, who died around the same time as the letter to Titus was written, are inscribed these words.
Here lies Valeria, daughter of Marcus, of free-born status from Caesarea in Mauritania. She was kind, affectionate, dignified (semnē) [as in 1 Tim. 3:8, 3:11 & Tit. 2:2], blameless, she loved her husband (philandros) [Tit. 2:4], loved her children (philoteknos) [Tit. 2:4], kept the marriage bed chaste. Out of respect and love for what is good, her husband Lucius Dexios from Herculaneum buried her. (Horsley’s translation.)
Οὐαλερίαν · Μάρκου · θυγατέρα · ἰνγένουαν ἀπὸ Καισαρείας · τῆς Μαυρειτανίας εὔνουν φιλόστοργον · σεμνὴν · ἄμωμον · φίλανδρον · φιλότεκνον εὐνοῦχον εὐσεβείας καὶ φιλαγαθίας εἵνεκε (or ἕνεκα) ὁ ἀνὴρ Λούκιος Δέξιος Ἡρκουληειανὸς ἐκήδευσε AE 828; SEG 1536.
This epitaph for Valeria is discussed by G.H.R. Horsley in “11. A Woman’s Virtue,” New Documents illustrating early Christianity, Volume 3 (1983), 40–43. In the same article, Dr Horsley provides more examples of epitaphs of wives that use the words philandros and philoteknos such as the following epitaph for Damostrata found in Nicomedia (Northern Turkey).
Here lies Damostrata.
Here, for her sake, I engraved and erected a stele.
She was modest/ moderate (sōphrosunēs) [1 Tim. 2:9 & 15], good (agathēs) [Tit. 2:5],
but she especially loved her husband (philandrias) [Tit. 2:4].
She lived with me twelve full years.
She lived 32 years in all. Farewell. (My translation)
ἐνθάδε κεῖται Δαμοστράτα
ᾗ ἕνεκ’ αὐτῆς στήλλην [στήλην] γράψας ἀνέθηκα
φιλανδρίας δὲ μάλιστα
συνζήσασαν ἐμοὶ πλήρη δυώδεκα ἔτη
ζήσασα ἔτη λβʹ. χαίρετε.
TAM IV, 1 124: Inscriptions.Packhum.org; Deutsches Archäologisches Institut
This epitaph, also found in Nicomedia, is cited by Horsley in “11. A Woman’s Virtue” in New Docs 3, p. 42.
O, instigator of miseries and the one jealous of the light of life!
You took away the woman I long for, Eutychiane is her name.
I placed here a stele in her memory from my own means,
I, her husband, Eutychios is my name.
Modestly (sōphronōs) [Tit. 2:12], she lived with me eight years and left me two small children―
she who was above reproach (akatgnōstos) [Tit. 2:8] and who loved her husband (philandros) [Tit. 2:4].
Dead at 25, her own allotted time complete,
her years were tragically cut short and she did not get to fully enjoy them. Farewell.
(My translation with contributions from Dr Lyn Kidson.)
[ὦ] πημάτων ἀρχηγὲ [κ]ὲ ζόης φθόνε, | φωτὸς
[σ]τερήσας τὴν ἐμοὶ ποθου[μέ]νην, | Εὐτυχιανὴν τοὔ[ν]ομα·
ἔνθα ἐθέμην στήλην [μν]ήμης χάριν εἰδίας
γαμετῆς [Εὐ]τύχιος τοὔνομα,
σω[φρ]όνως συνζήσασαν μετὰ ἐμοῦ [ἐν]ιαυτοὺς ὀκτώ,
<ἔ>λιψε δέ μοι [νή]πια δύω ἡ ἀκατάγνωστος [κὲ] φίλανδρος·
θνῄσκι δὲ ἐνι[αυ]τῶν κεʹ τὴν εἰδίαν μοῖραν [τ]ελέσασα,
ὧν ἔκαμε [μη]δ’ ἀπολαύσασα. χέρετε.
TAM IV, 1 130: Inscriptions.Packhum.org
The following excerpt is from a Roman inscription that dates to the late third century. It was published by Horsley in volume 4 of New Docs (1987): “10. A Judicial Career Cut Short,” p. 35. The inscription is about a deceased man named Rufinus and was written by his grieving wife who takes the opportunity to commend herself.
… And the mother of twin children, a fine woman (semnē) who loved her husband (philandros), sailed across the ocean and brought his body over the deep, and endured difficulties and continued in her grieving and laid him down in this tomb and bequeathed him to eternity. This monument is (testimony to) the wifely devotion (philandria) of Damostrateia. (Notes and Horsley’s translation of the full epitaph can be read here.)
… Ἡ δὲ τέκνων δισσῶν μήτηρ, σεμνὴ ⌜ἡ⌝δὲ φίλανδρος,
καὶ πέλαγος διέπλευσε καὶ ἤγαγε σῶμα βυθοῖσιν
καὶ καμάτους ὑπέμεινε καὶ ἐν θρήνοις διέμεινε
καὶ τύνβῳ κατέθηκε καὶ αἰῶσιν παρέδωκε.
Δαμοστρατείας ταῦτα τῆς φιλανδρίας
Epigraphic Database Roma
The following inscription for a woman named Hero may have been created to honour her while she was still alive. (Her husband and son are also honoured with similar inscriptions.) This inscription is from Hierapolis-Kastabala east of Tarsus in Cilicia, Paul’s hometown, in the Roman province Asia Minor.
The people [honour] Hero the Athenian and the wife of Arzybios the son of Lukios, who is living respectably (kosmiōs) [cf. 1 Tim. 2:9] and moderately (sōphronōs) [cf. Tit. 2:5]. She loves her husband (philandros) and loves her children (philoteknos). Erected [in her] honour. (My translation with contributions from Dr Lyn Kidson.)
ὁ δῆμος Ἥρω Ἀθηναίου γυναῖκα δὲ γενομέν[η]ν Ἀρζυβίου τοῦ Λουκίου κοσμίως καὶ σωφρόνως ζῶσαν, φίλανδρον καὶ φιλότεκνον, τειμῆς ἕνεκα. See Journal of Hellenic Studies (JHS) Volume 11 (1890): 250, 25.
 Mutuality, equality, and unity between men and women, rather than a gender hierarchy and divide, are also the ideals of the New Covenant (e.g., Gal. 3:28). Hierarchical complementarians divide the church. More on this here.
 Being a homemaker is a noble activity, and some women feel especially called to this role. I am not in any way discrediting or diminishing this function.
© Margaret Mowczko 2013
All Rights Reserved
Working Women in the New Testament
“Workers at Home” or “Keepers at Home” in Titus 2:5?
Bible Women who weren’t “Keepers at Home”
Is Motherhood the highest calling for women?
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