The question of whether the name ΙΟΥΝΙΑΝ in ancient Greek manuscripts of Romans 16:7 is the masculine name Junias or the feminine name Junia came up again on Facebook, and I shared some information there that I’ve been sitting on for a while. I thought I should share it here too.
But first, here’s the NIV translation of Romans 16:7.
Greet Andronicus and Junia, my fellow Jews who have been in prison with me. They are outstanding among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was.
1. The feminine names Junia and Julia in Romans 16:7
The following is a list of every (surviving) reference to Junia made by early and medieval Christian scholars that date before the 1200s, with the exception of the reference attributed to Epiphanius which is mentioned in the second part of this article.
These scholars all took the second name in Romans 16:7 to be either the female name Junia or, occasionally, the female name Julia.
- Origen (c. 185–254) Commentarius in epistolum ad Romanos, Book 10 (10.21 cf. 10:26) (PG 14.1280). (More on Origen below.)
- Chrysostom (c. 344/345–407), In epistolum ad Romanos 31.2 (PG 60.669-670)
- Jerome (c. 345-419), Liber interpretationis hebraicorum nominun 72.15 (CCLat 72.150) and Expositio ep. ad Romanos 16:7 (PL 30.744)
- Ambrosiaster (c. 379), Commentarius in epistolum ad Romanos (CSEL 81.480) “Julia”
- Theodoret of Cyrrhus (c. 393–c. 458), Interpretatio epistolum ad Romanos (PG 82.219-29)
- Ps. –Primasius (died c. 567), Commentarius in epistolum ad Romanos (PL 68.505)
- John Damascene (c. 675–c. 749), In epistolum ad Romanos (PG 95.565)
- Rabanus Maurus of Fulda (776–856), In epistolum ad Romanos (PL 111.1607D-1608B) (PDF)
- Haymo of Halberstadt (fl. 840–853), In epistolum ad Romanos (PL 117.505)
- Hatto of Vercelli (885–961), In epistolum ad Romanos 16: “Virum et uxorem intellegere debemus” (PL 134.282) “Julia”
- Lanfranc of Bec (c. 1005-1089), Commentarius in epistolum ad Romanos (PL 150.153-4) (PDF)
- Bruno the Carthusian (c. 1030-1101)
- Theophylact of Bulgaria (fl. 1070-1081) Commentarius in epistolum ad Romanos (PG 124.552)
- Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
- Peter Lombard (c. 1069-1169)
Furthermore, the Old Latin, early Syriac, and early Coptic translations have a feminine name. And the Greek Orthodox Church which uses the Greek New Testament and Septuagint as their primary texts— they know Greek!—has always regarded Junia as a woman.
On top of this, Bruce M. Metzger notes,
… (1) the female Latin name Junia occurs over 250 times in Greek and Latin inscriptions found in Rome alone, whereas the male name is unattested anywhere, and (2) when Greek manuscripts [containing Romans 16:7] began to be accented, scribes wrote the feminine Ἰουνίαν (“Junia”).”
Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition (D-Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1994), 475.
2. The masculine name Junias in Romans 16:7
By comparison, there are very few instances where the name ΙΟΥΝΙΑΝ is rendered as a masculine name in ancient texts or commentaries of Romans 16:7. It was thought that Minuscule 33, a Greek manuscript dating from the ninth century, had the name accented as a masculine name. But this idea has been disputed and overturned. Peter Lampe, for example, writes,
I am now convinced (Paris, Bib. Nation., Grec 14, p. 100 verso, 1. 1) Minuscule 33 from the ninth century places an acute accent and writes the feminine ïουνίαν, so that, contrary to Aland’s text-critical apparatus, we have a witness for the feminine variant.
There is a bit of confusion over Origen (c. 185–254) and his mention of Junia(s) in his commentary on Romans. Origen’s commentary on Romans survives in Greek fragments and as an early Latin translation by Rufinus (345-410). The feminine name occurs in section 10.21 in Rufinus’ translation of Origen’s commentary, but on one occasion, in section 10.26 (PG 14.1289), the name is the masculine “Junias.”
Fitzmyer discusses the discrepancy in Rufinus’ translation and suggests the masculine name was not in Origin’s original Greek commentary on Romans. Most scholars, including Daniel Wallace and Douglas Moo, acknowledge that the masculine name is an error. In the early 900s, Rabanus Maurus quoted from Origen’s commentary and he only gave the feminine name Junia (PL 111.1607D-1608B) (PDF). More recent critical Latin translations of Origen’s commentary only have the feminine name. (Bridget Jack Jeffries takes a closer look at Origen’s mentions of Junia here.)
Finally, the Index Discipulorum, a list of apostles attributed to Epiphanius and dated to the 4th century—though it may be pseudonymous and date from the 9th century—has the masculine names Junias and Priscas instead of the correct female names Junia and Prisca. Epiphanius is the earliest source to have the masculine name, but his masculinisation of Prisca’s name casts doubt on the credibility and validity of this evidence.
It was Giles (also known as Aegidius) of Rome (1247-1316) who seems to have been the first person who unambiguously understood Andronicus and his ministry partner to both be “worthy men.” Working from Latin texts that contained both names, Junia and Julia (Latin accusative: Juniam and Juliam), Giles went with Juliam and assumed Andronicus’s partner was a man with the name Julias. (See Aegidii Columnae Romani in epistolam Pauli ad Romanos commentaria, Lectio 52, 97, here.)
A few hundred years later, Martin Luther translated ΙΟΥΝΙΑΝ as the masculine name (with the masculine article) den Juniam in his 1552 German translation of the New Testament. A masculine reading slowly gained traction and was adopted by other translators including the English translators of the Revised Version in 1881. This was the first major Protestant English Bible to make Junia a man named Junias.
Michael Bird has observed,
There is a tsunami of textual and patristic evidence for ‘Junia’ that proves overwhelming. Despite some naughty scribes, biased translators, lazy lexicographers and dogmatic commentators, the text speaks about a woman named ‘Junia.’ Jewett goes so far as to call the masculine ‘Junias’ a ‘figment of chauvinistic imagination.’
Bird, Romans (The Story of God Bible Commentary) (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016)
And James D.G. Dunn has stated,
[The female name Junia] was taken for granted by the patristic commentators, and indeed up to the Middle Ages. The assumption that it must be male is a striking indictment of male presumption regarding the character and structure of earliest Christianity… We may firmly conclude, however, that one of the foundation apostles of Christianity was a woman and wife.
Dunn, Romans 9-16 (Word Biblical Commentary, Vol 38B) (Dallas, TX: Word, 1988), 894.
 Many of the names above are taken from Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s Romans: A New Translation and Commentary (The Anchor Bible; New York: Doubleday, 1993), with additional information taken from, Eldon Jay Epp’s chapter, “Text-Critical, Exegetical and Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting the Junia/Junia Variation in Romans 16:7”, in New Testament Textual Criticism and Exegesis: Festschrift J. Delobel, A. Denaux (ed.) (Leuven: Leuven University Press/Peeters, 2002), 227-291.
(I have checked the texts with the highlighted PG links myself.)
 Peter Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, trans. Michael Steinhauser (London: Continuum, 2003),166, fn 39. In the same footnote, Lampe goes on to say that the masculine name “Junias” is “an embarrassing solution fabricated by men.” (Google Books)
A second-century funerary relief of a Roman couple carved from marble. (Wikimedia)
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Junia: The Jewish Woman Imprisoned with Paul
Junia in Romans 16:7
Is Junia well known “to” the apostles?
All articles on Junia here.
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Paul’s Female Coworkers
A List of the 29 People in Romans 16:1-16