Mary Magdalene, Bible, New Testament, resurrection
Watercolour and ink portrait of Mary Magdalene by Sarah Beth Baca.
Used with permission of the artist. All rights reserved.
Prints of this portrait and of other Bible women can be purchased here.

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This article looks at what the Bible says about Mary Magdalene, and especially at what “Magdalene” might mean. Does it refer to Mary’s hometown? Was it her nickname? Or does it somehow imply that Mary was a prostitute?

Mary from Magdala

Mary Magdalene was a wealthy woman and one of Jesus’ closest and most faithful disciples. She is mentioned by name over a dozen times in the New Testament, only in the four Gospels, where she is referred to with remarkable consistency as “Mary the Magdalene”: Maria, or Mariam, hē Magdalēnē in the Greek.[1] The word Magdalēnē may function in a similar way as, for example, Nazarēnē in “Jesus the Nazarene.”[2] So it is widely assumed Mary was from a town in Israel with the name Magdala (Aramaic) or Migdol (Hebrew).

Mary’s hometown may have been Migdol Nûnîya, a busy and fairly Hellenized port town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, three kilometres north of Tiberias.[3] Migdol Nûnîya (“Fish Tower”) is known in Greek sources as Tarichea (“Centre of Fish Salting”). Or perhaps Mary’s hometown was the “Tower of Dyers,” also near Tiberias, and Mary had made her wealth from dyed cloth (cf. Lydia in Acts 16:14-15). Many places in Israel were (and are) called Migdol, Magdal, or Magdala—words which mean “tower.” So it is impossible to determine which town is Mary’s hometown with any degree of certainty, assuming that “Magdalene” does, in fact, refer to her place of origin. There are, however, a few other interpretive possibilities for “the Magdalene.”

Mary the Tower

It is possible that Mary Magdalene was not necessarily from a town called Magdala but that “Magdalene” was a nick-name. Jesus gave the descriptive nicknames “Rock” and “Sons of Thunder” to his three closest disciples: Simon Peter and the brothers John and James. Perhaps he gave Mary the nickname “the Magdalene.” Mary was a very common name and Jesus had other female followers and relatives called Mary. So a distinguishing nickname would have been, and continues to be, useful in identifying Mary Magdalene.

Since magdala means “tower,” “watch-tower,” or “fortress” in Aramaic,[4] a nickname meaning “tower,” may indicate that Mary was a particularly tall or strong woman. Mary was with Jesus in many critical moments of his life and ministry, and she may have been strong support for him and his followers, especially his female followers from Galilee. Mary, and many other women from Galilee, travelled with Jesus and the Twelve, and they financed Jesus’ ministry out of their own resources (Luke 8:2; Matt. 27:55-56 cf. Mark 16:1). Mary is named first in lists of these women from Galilee, with the exception of the list in John 19:25.

The idea that “Magdalene” was a nickname fits with what it says in Luke 8:2, that Mary was called “Magdalene” (Maria hē kaloumenē Magdalēnē). Luke uses an identical construction for “Judas who is called Iscariot” in Luke 22:3: Ioudan ton kaloumenon iskariōtēn,[5] and for “Simeon who is called Niger” in Acts 13:1: Simeōn ho kaloumenos niger. (Niger is a Latin word meaning “dark” or “black”.)

It is possible that Mary, as a close, valued, and loved disciple, was given a nickname with a strong meaning, like the nicknames of Peter, John and James, but there is at least one other possibility that may account for the appellation “the Magdalene.”

Mary who Plaited Hair

Thomas McDaniel quotes others who state that an almost identical word to magdala can mean “hairdresser,” from gadal which means “to weave, to twine, to plait, to dress hair” (Jastrow 213, 218), and that in the Arabic-Syriac lexicon of Bar-Bahlul (c. 953 C.E.) it was stated that Mary was called “Magdalene” because her hair was braided (J. Payne Smith, 60–61).[6] Was Mary a hairdresser? According to Rabbinic literature, being a hairdresser was one of several occupations open to respectable Jewish women.[7]

McDaniel goes on to quote from John Lightfoot’s A Commentary of the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica (1658: 3:87, 375) where Lightfoot equates plaited hair with prostitution.

Whence she was called Magdalene, doth not so plainly appear; whether from Magdala, a town on the lake of Gennesaret, or from the word mgdla which signifies a plaiting or curling of the hair, a thing usual with harlots. . . . The title which they [the Talmudists] gave their Mary [mgdla] is so like this of ours, that you may with good reason doubt whether she was called Magdalene from the town of Magdala, or from that word of the Talmudist mgdla, a plaiter of hair. We leave it to the learned to decide.[8]

Lightfoot was not the first to link Mary the Magdalene with prostitution. Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great) gave a sermon in Rome on September the 14th, 591, in which he incorrectly identified Mary Magdalene as the unnamed sinner in Luke 7:37, and he asserted that Mary was a penitent prostitute.[9] He further confused her with Mary of Bethany.[10] Pope Gregory’s faulty assertions stuck and for well over a thousand years most Christians in the Latin West, but not in the Greek East, have assumed that Mary Magdalene had been a prostitute.[11] (In the churches of the Greek East, Mary was never considered to be a prostitute but an apostle to the apostles!)

Furthermore, the chance similarity of a Greek word magdalia, which can mean “dirt washed off,”[12] with the completely unrelated Aramaic word magdala “became intertwined in Western traditions about Mary Magdalene, soiling her name and her reputation.”[13] Subsequently, “Magdalene” entered dictionaries as a word that means “reformed prostitute.” There is nothing in the Gospels, however, that hints at Mary having been a prostitute. What we do know of Mary’s past is that she had been afflicted by seven demons that Jesus cast out of her. Released from her suffering and torment, she became a devoted disciple of Jesus and supporter of his mission (Luke 8:2).[14]

Mary Magdalene and the Resurrection

In the Bible, Mary Magdalene is especially connected with the resurrection of Jesus. After witnessing the execution of their master, which would have been a distressing, ghastly, and bewildering experience, Mary and a few other women were the first people to learn that Jesus had come back to life. Mark and John record that Mary, in particular, was the very first person to see Jesus alive after his resurrection (Mark 16:9; John 20:1ff, cf. Luke 24:1ff). She was the first witness of the resurrection.

My favourite Bible passage about Mary and the resurrection is in John’s Gospel where we get to hear her speak (John 20:2, 11-18). John 20:16 is especially moving when Jesus simply calls her “Mary,” and she responds with “Rabboni” which means “my master-teacher.”[15] I am certain that the strong affection between the two was mutual.[16]

We should not downplay Mary’s ministry and her role as one of Jesus’ foremost disciples. We should be especially careful that we do not downplay the significance that Mary Magdalene was the first person to see Jesus alive at the beginning of a new era and that she was commissioned by Jesus to proclaim the message of his resurrection. We do not know for certain if Mary was from a town called Magdala or if she was a hairdresser, but the Gospels do show that she was a faithful tower of strength and support among Jesus’ disciples.


[1] Mary Magdalene is mentioned by name in the following Bible verses: Matthew 27:56, 61; 28:1; Mark 15:40, 47; 16:1, 9; Luke 8:2; 24:10; John 19:25; 20:1, 11, 16, 18. In most of these verses, she is called Maria hē Magdalēnē in the Greek (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40, 47; 16:1, 9; Luke 8:2; 24: 10; John 19:25; 20:1).  (N.B. Mark 16:9 may not have been part of the original Gospel of Mark. The oldest manuscripts of Mark end at Mark 16:8.)
In Matthew 27:61; 28:1 and John 20:18 she is called Mariam hē Magdalēnē. (Mary the mother of Jesus is likewise sometimes called Maria and at other times called Mariam.) The names are essentially the same; however, Mariam is more Hebraic/Aramaic.
In Luke 24:10 Mary Magdalene’s name appears as hē Magdalēnē Maria, but in Luke 8:2 we have the only difference of note where Luke has Maria hē kaloumenē Magdalēnē: “Mary the one called “Magdalene”.
In John 20:1ff where she is mentioned several times, once she is simply called “Maria”(John 20:11), and, a few verses later, Jesus simply calls her “Mariam” to which she responds in Aramaic, “Rabboni!” (John 20:16).
Elizabeth Schrader of Duke University suggests that Martha in John’s Gospel is actually Mary Magdalene. She has found that 1 in 5 ancient manuscripts of John has some issue with the name “Martha.” More on this here.

[2] The grammatical construction of “Jesus” with “Nazarene” in the Greek New Testament is not nearly as consistent as the construction of “Mary the Magdalene” (Maria hē Magdalēnē) (cf. Matt. 2:23; Mark 14:67; 16:6).

[3] Thomas F. McDaniel in Chapter 32 “The Meaning of ‘Mary,’ ‘Magdalene,’ and other Names: Luke 8:2 and Related Texts”, from his book Clarifying Baffling Biblical Passages (2007), 338-339. (Source)

[4] There is also a Greek word magdōlos that means “tower” but it is a loan word from the Hebrew and Aramaic.

[5] The meaning of “Iscariot” is unclear. It may refer to a place; however, the word is very similar to two Hebrew words one meaning “false one” and another meaning “stop up.” Joan Taylor discusses the meaning of Iscariot in her paper “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot),’ Journal of Biblical Literature, 129.2 (2010): 367-383. Taylor “supports the very early definition made by Origen—that [Iscariot] derives from the Hebrew/Aramaic root scr, ‘stop up’, ‘block.’” “Iscariot” may have been a nickname given to Judas posthumously to indicate that he was a false disciple or, as Taylor suggests, it may refer to how he died (Matt. 27:5; Acts 1:18; and Papias, Exposition 3).

[6] McDaniel, Clarifying Baffling Biblical Passages, 339-340. McDaniel also gives a few other possible meanings for Magdala in his book.

[7] See Richard Bauckham, Gospel Women: Studies of the Named Women of the Gospels (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002),133. (Google Books)

[8] McDaniel, Clarifying Baffling Biblical Passages, 354.

[9] Gregory’s sermon, Homily 33, is in Homiliarum in evangelia, Book 2, Patrologia Latina, volume 76 (Paris: J.P. Migne, 1844-1864), columns 1238-1246; and here.

[10] The conflation of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the woman in Luke 7 has formed the “composite Magdelene,” so-called by scholars. A few also confuse Mary Magdalene with the unnamed woman caught in adultery. Jesus said to the woman caught in adultery “Neither do I condemn you. Go your way, and from now on do not sin again” (John 8:11 NRSV, my italics). Mary Magdalene, on the other hand, did not go her own way after being delivered from seven demons; she accompanied Jesus throughout Galilee and went all the way to Jerusalem with him for his crucifixion.

[11] Since the 1960s, the Roman Catholic Church no longer states that Mary Magdalene was a former prostitute. In the 1988 document Mulieres Dignitatum, Pope John Paul II attempted to salvage her reputation and referred to Mary as “apostle of the apostles” (apostolorum apostola). In June 2016, Pope Francis affirmed this title and elevated the liturgical celebration of Mary Magdalene to the same rank as the liturgical celebrations of the apostles, the rank of Feast. (Vatican source)
Mary Magdalene had previously been called “apostle of the apostles” in the thirteenth century by Thomas Aquinas in In Ioannem Evangelistam Expositio, c. XX, L. III, 6, and in the ninth century by Rabanus Maurus in De vita beatae Mariae Magdalenae, XXVII (unless this work was written later and pseudonymously.) Still earlier, in around 235 AD, Hippolytus used the term “apostle of the apostles” in paragraphs 24-26 of his commentary on Song of Songs 3:1-4, which only survives in Georgian manuscripts. He applied the term to the Myrrhbearers and appears to confuse Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany. He also brings Martha into the picture. Mary Anne Beavis suggests that “it is not unlikely that early oral tradition sometimes placed the Bethany sisters among the myrrh-bearing women.” Beavis, “Mary of Bethany and the Hermeneutics of Remembrance,” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 75 (2013): 739-755, 746.
Unlike the case of the Western Church, Mary has long been considered as an apostle to the apostles in the Eastern Church.

[12] The Greek word magdalia (and the later word apomagdalia) has as one of its meanings “dirt washed off.” Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 209 & 1070.

[13] McDaniel, Clarifying Baffling Biblical Passages, 348.

[14] Ben Witherington writes, “Seven was the number of completion or perfection [and so w]e are meant to understand that [Mary] was particularly captivated by the dark presence in her life and required deliverance by an external power. Demonic possession controls the personality and leads to voices speaking through the person, fits, and acts of unusual power. Jesus delivered Miriam [i.e. Mary] from this condition, which apparently prompted her to drop everything and follow him around Galilee.” (Source)
Gregory the Great, in his sermon maligning Mary Magdalene, states that the seven demons were the seven deadly sins: gluttony, lust, greed, sloth, wrath, envy, pride. He stated, “And what did these devils signify if not all the vices.” (Gregory the Great, Homily 33) However, the concept of the seven deadly sins is not a biblical or Jewish idea. I strongly doubt this is what Luke had in mind.
It could be that Mary had been very ill. In the ancient world, illness was often attributed to unclean, evil spirits (e.g., Mark 9:17ff). Mary and some other women are described by Luke as “women who had been healed of evil spirits and sicknesses” (Luke 8:2-3, italics added). The words “healed” and “sicknesses” may indicate the effect of the evil spirits.

[15] Rabboni (or rabbouni) is rabbon with a suffix which means “my.” Rabbon is the highest title of honour for a teacher in the Jewish schools. Wesley Perschbacher, The New Analytical Greek Lexicon (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1990), 361.

[16] There is nothing in the Bible that indicates Jesus and Mary were married or had children together. Considering Jesus’ ministry, including his death and return to the Father forty days later, it is unlikely that he would have chosen to marry and have a family.

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Further Reading

I recommend Karla Zazueta’s chapter on Mary Magdalene in Vindicating the Vixens: Revisiting Sexualized, Vilified, and Marginalized Women of the Bible, edited by Sandra Glahn (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 2017) available at Amazon.

Vindicating the Vixens Huldah, Mary the magdalene.