“Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus” (John 11:5).
Mary and Martha of Bethany are well-known Bible figures. The two sisters seem to have had different temperaments, and their characters are often polarised in the retelling of their story. These polarised characterisations are caricatures that can obscure the real picture of the women, their faith, and their situation. This article looks at some of the information we have on Mary and Martha, and their brother Lazarus. My hope is that this information may give a more accurate picture of these friends of Jesus.
Mary and Martha’s Marital Status
Mary and Martha are mentioned by name in Luke’s and John’s Gospels in various narratives. There is no mention of fathers or husbands in any of these accounts. It was unusual for women to be unmarried in Bible times, so it is possible that the sisters were young orphaned women who had not yet married or were widows who had not remarried. Another possibility is that Mary and Martha belonged to an ascetic Jewish sect and had chosen singleness and celibacy.
It is believed that a colony of ascetics (perhaps Essenes) lived in Bethany. One of the Dead Sea Scrolls suggests that these ascetics had a hospice in Bethany for the ritually unclean which included lepers (11QTemple 46:16-47:5). The ascetics were known for their acts of charity and it is likely their hospice also helped and accommodated the poor and destitute. Jesus may have been in such a hospice when he announced, “For you always have the poor with you, but you do not always have me” (Matt. 26:11; Mark 14:7; John 12:8).
Mary and Martha’s Age
Jewish women were usually married by sixteen years of age. (It was not uncommon for Jewish girls to be legally betrothed before their twelfth birthday and married by their fourteenth.) Because we do not know about any husbands or children, it is difficult to estimate the ages of Mary and Martha and their brother.
Martha is often, but not always, mentioned first among her siblings, so she was probably the oldest (e.g., John 11:5). In comparison with his sisters, Lazarus plays a more passive role in the Gospel narratives, so he may have been considerably younger. His young age would have made his death especially lamentable.
Mary and Martha’s Wealth
If we assume the narratives about Mary and Martha were not set in a hospice run by an ascetic community, then the women appear to have been wealthy with a home large enough to accommodate Jesus and his entourage. Moreover, Mary had in her possession very expensive perfume that was worth a year’s wages (John 12:3-8). Or had the perfume been a donation from a wealthy benefactor for the work of the poor? Did Mary use perfume to anoint Jesus that was meant to be sold to help the poor? (See Matt. 26:8-9, 11 // Mark 14:4-5, 7 // John 12:4-5, 8.)
Martha seems to have been regarded as the mistress of the home (Luke 10:38). The name “Martha” is the feminine form of an Aramaic word meaning “lord” or “master.” Perhaps “Martha” was an Aramaic title (or term of respect) rather than a name, much like the Greek title or (term of respect) “Kyria” which is used in 2 John 1:1, 5 for a lady.
Several wealthy women in the New Testament appear to have been the mistresses of their own homes with no mention of a husband or father: Lydia, Nympha, Chloe, Mary of Jerusalem, the chosen lady. Other New Testament women are mentioned as being of independent means. Jesus’ ministry was sponsored by Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Susanna, and many other women who accompanied Jesus and ministered to him out of their own personal resources (Luke 8:2-3). It was not rare for a woman to be independently wealthy and a householder in New Testament times.
Mary and Martha’s Faith
From the short biblical accounts of the sisters, it seems Martha was the more practical of the two (Luke 10:40; John 11:39; 12:2) and Mary the more emotional (John 11:32-33; 12:3). Mary also seems to have been more popular (John 11:45). She still seems to be more popular today.
Martha has been unfairly maligned by some because of just one incident (Luke 10:38-42). However, she made some astute statements of faith concerning Jesus’ identity and concerning eternal life. These statements are recorded in John chapter 11.
Martha answered, “I know he [her deceased brother Lazarus] will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.” John 11:24 (cf. Josephus, Wars, 2.8.11 (154))
“Yes, Lord,” she told him, “I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.” John 11:27
This second statement is very similar to Peter’s recorded in Matthew 16:15-17:
“But what about you?” he [Jesus] asked. “Who do you say I am?” Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven.”
We are told that Peter could not have known that Jesus was the Christ (or Messiah) and the Son of God unless God the Father had revealed it to him. Likewise, Martha’s faith statements were probably based on divine revelation.
Mary and Martha were both devoted disciples of Jesus. Sitting at someone’s feet was the usual posture of a disciple who was being taught, and in Luke 10:39 we see Mary sitting at Jesus’ feet. Perhaps some of the other men and women who travelled with Jesus were also sitting with Mary while Martha was busy preparing a meal.
Being hospitable and serving a meal was an almost sacred duty in the culture of that time. Martha was doing a very good thing, the expected thing, but Mary had chosen the better option. Mary had chosen the one thing that was really necessary: to be with Jesus and learn from him (Luke 10:42). Jesus promises that Mary’s choice to be trained as one of his disciples will not be taken away from her.
Later, Mary would choose to do another fine thing when she lovingly anointed Jesus with her expensive perfume in preparation for his death (John 12:1-8; cf. Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 14: 3-9). Did Mary knowingly anoint Jesus as a prophetic act? (cf. John 12:7). Mary was misunderstood and criticised because of her extravagant act of ministry, but Jesus defended her actions. He told the men who were harassing her, “Leave her alone” (John 12:7: cf. Mark 14:6). And he prophesied, “Truly I tell you, wherever the gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will also be told, in memory of her” (Matt. 26:13; Mark 14:9).
Mary and Martha would continue to be devoted disciples and friends of Jesus. We learn nothing, though, about Lazarus’s faith or his character, but he does become a bit of a celebrity after Jesus raised him from death (John 12:1-2, 9). He then became the target of the chief priests’ plot to assassinate him (John 12:10-11). Ben Witherington III suggests Lazarus is the beloved disciple who is mentioned several times in John’s Gospel. If Witherington’s suggestion is correct, then we know quite a bit more about him (cf. John 11:3).
Jesus at Bethany
The name Bethany (beth anya) means “Poor House” or “House of Misery”. The village may have been named after the hospice for the sick and destitute, but Jesus did not experience poverty in Bethany. Instead, he experienced the warmth, love, and hospitality of dear friends.
Jesus spent a lot of time during the last weeks of his earthly ministry in Bethany. He began his ride into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday from Bethany (Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29), and he stayed in Bethany the following week (Matt. 21:17; 26:6; Mark 11:11-12; John 12:1ff). Jesus may have spent the last few days before his crucifixion in Martha’s home. Furthermore, according to Luke’s Gospel, after his death and resurrection, Jesus ascended into heaven from near Bethany (Luke 24:50-51).
Mary and Martha were both women of great faith, spiritual acuity, and devotion. The church needs Marys and Marthas, people who will be exuberant, pragmatic, and insightful in their devotion and service to the Lord Jesus, people who are always choosing the more necessary thing of spending time with Jesus and learning from him.
 Mary and Martha are mentioned only in Luke’s and John’s Gospels. In Luke 10:38-42, where Martha is serving and Mary is learning at Jesus’ feet, Lazarus and Bethany are not mentioned.
The following are the passages in John’s Gospel that mention Mary, Martha and/or Lazarus in John’s Gospel: Lazarus raised from the dead and Martha’s faith statements: John 11:1-45 here; Mary’s anointing of Jesus: John 12:1-11 here; cf. Matthew 26:6-13 here and Mark 14:3-9 here. (I believe the account in Luke 7:36-50 refers to a previous, unrelated anointing by an unknown woman that occurred earlier in Jesus’ ministry.) I compare the anointing stories here.
 The name “Essenes” has been given to the community that collected and produced the writings we know as the Dead Sea Scrolls. Scholars, however, are now debating if there really was a sect called the Essenes and if they produced the Dead Sea Scrolls. Josephus provides a lot of information about an ascetic sect who he refers to (perhaps incorrectly) as the Essenes in The Wars of the Jews, Book 2, chapter 8, 2-13 (119-160). Josephus admired these people and their merciful, harmonious, and devout way of living. The ascetic sect associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls began in around 100 BC and vanished after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple. (John the Baptist was also an ascetic.)
 The house of Simon the Leper was in Bethany. Simon the Leper (Shimon ha’tsarua) may be a mistranslation of his real Hebraic name “Simon the Devout” (Shimon ha’tsanua), and this mistranslation was recorded in the Greek text of the New Testament. Lepers were isolated from society. They usually didn’t hold dinner parties (cf. Matt. 26:6; Mark 14:3)! On the other hand, it seems that there were lepers in Bethany. Is it possible that a man with leprosy had guests for dinner? I doubt it! (See footnote 5.)
 Mary, Martha and Lazarus may not have been blood relations. Josephus writes that the Essenes chose other people’s children who were pliable and capable of learning and that they regarded these children as their own (Josephus, Wars 2.8.2 (120)).
 In Matthew’s and Mark’s Gospels, it is clear that the anointing occurred in Simon the Leper’s house (Mark 14:3; Matt 26:6). Mary, however, is not identified by name in these accounts. In John’s Gospel, the anointing of Jesus by Mary seems to have occurred in Martha’s house. Or perhaps Martha had been helping out at Simon’s home (John 12:2, cf. Luke 10:38, 40). The connection between Simon and Martha, Mary and Lazarus is unclear. Perhaps Simon was their deceased father and their house was still known as the house of Simon the Leper, or the house of Simon the Devout. (See footnote 3.) Perhaps Simon was a wealthy man, afflicted with leprosy, who had bequeathed his home to the community in Bethany. It is probable that all the Gospel references to a house in Bethany refer to the one communal home, or establishment, of ascetics, and that Martha was the mistress of that house (cf. Josephus, Wars 2.8.4 (125)). (We hear nothing about Simon the Leper/ Devout in the New Testament, unless he is Simon the Pharisee in Luke 7:36-50. In this Gospel passage, there is an account of a previous anointing from an unnamed, unknown woman. I believe Simon the Leper/ Devout and Simon the Pharisee are two different Simons.)
 It has been suggested by some that Martha was distracted by “much ministry” (pollēn diakonian) rather than by caring for her guests (Luke 10:40). I am keeping my mind open to this suggestion, but am not convinced of it. See Mary Stromer Hanson’s comments in the comments section below.
 NT Wright comments on the serious social ramifications of Mary’s act of sitting at Jesus’ feet here.
 There is a textual variant with the Greek text of Luke 10:42. That is, there is a longer and shorter version. Dorothy Lee writes about the NIV’s use of the longer reading and its rendering of Luke 10:42a: “but few things are needed—or indeed only one.” Dorothy believes this verse is about food and makes an interesting observation.
Here the interpretation shifts so that it is clearer that Jesus is speaking about food and its preparation: only a few dishes are needed, and indeed one dish is probably sufficient. It is more apparent now that the choice lies not between serving and listening to the word but rather between laboring with elaborate forms of hospitality and paying heed to Jesus’s teaching.
[Martha] is an example of how service can go awry if it moves away from simplicity of life through cultural demands and loses its focus on the word of Jesus. Mary is an example of an authentic disciple who knows where the center lies. Martha, too, is a disciple who shows exemplary faith in Jesus in her welcome of him, yet she needs to rediscover the same center and to live without anxiety for provisions.
Dorothy A. Lee, The Ministry of Women in the New Testament: Reclaiming the Biblical Vision for Church Leadership (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2021), 52 and 53.
 Jenny Rae Armstrong has written a beautiful and powerful short piece on Mary’s anointing of Jesus here.
 Ben Witherington III writes about the possibility of Lazarus being the “beloved disciple” in his book What have they done with Jesus?: Beyond Strange Theories and Bad History—Why We Can Trust the Bible. The transcript of his lecture entitled The Historical Figure of the Beloved Disciple in the 4th Gospel can be read here.
 Others believe that Bethany may mean “House of dates” or “House of figs.” Bethany was a natural oasis and known for its trees which produced olives, figs, almonds, and carobs.
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1. Relief of Mary and Martha with Jesus, by Karl Gundelach, over the entrance to the Gartenkirche St Marien, Hannover. (Source: Wikimedia)
2. Map of Israel in Jesus’ time showing the proximity of Bethany to Jerusalem. Bethany was only two miles from Jerusalem which made it a perfect location for a hospice for pilgrims travelling to Jerusalem who became ritually unclean and were unable to participate in the Jewish festivals. © Visual Bible Alive.
3. Social media image is of the resurrection of Lazarus from the Hunterian Psalter (c. 1170). (Source: Glasgow University Library)
Bargil Pixner, Paths of the Messiah and Sites of the Early Church from Galilee to Jerusalem (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010), 227-330, here.
Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 2, see chapter 8, paragraphs 2-13 here.