In my previous post, I argued that 1 Timothy 2:12 is not as straightforward as many believe it to be, and I looked at six factors that should be considered when trying to interpret this verse. How we understand the following verses, however, also influences how we interpret verse 12. In this post I look at 1 Timothy 2:13: “For Adam was formed first, then Eve.”
A Little Word with Big Implications
Verse 13 has been used by many to argue that the created order of Adam first, Eve second, is one reason why a woman cannot teach and lead a man. In this interpretation, the Greek word gar, often translated into English as “for”, is understood as meaning “because”. (The preacher I mentioned in my previous post simply states that “for” means “because” in 1 Timothy 2:13.)
Gar is sometimes used in the New Testament with a sense of “because”, but gar has many more senses. Gar is often used in the New Testament to introduce additional, background information. This information is often from the past and sometimes from the Old Testament.
Philip Towner states, “The connecting particle (gar) can emphasize logical reasoning or simply introduce something more on the order of an explanation.”
Towner, The Letters to Timothy and Titus (NICNT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006), 225.
[See also Sarah H. Casson’s 2019 book Textual Signposts in the Argument of Romans for an in-depth investigation on gar here.]
Here is a small sample of verses where gar is used to introduce this kind of additional information, rather than a reason. I encourage you to read these verse in your own Bible so you get a sense of their contexts.
In Matthew 3:2-3, gar occurs in verse 2 to give a reason why people should repent: “for (gar) the kingdom of heaven is near”. But in the following verse gar occurs again to introduce information from the Old Testament relevant to John the Baptist: “For (gar) this is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke …” Here we have two uses of gar in consecutive verses. Note that most English translations leave gar in Matthew 3:3 untranslated.
Gar is also left untranslated in some English versions of Matthew 15:27, or it is translated as “yet”, “but”, or occasionally “for”. In this verse, the Syrophoenician woman agrees with Jesus’ statement in Matthew 15:26, and then gives additional information regarding his statement. This information does not come from the Old Testament in this instance.
Gar is used in Acts 13:36 to introduce the information that David, having served the will of God in his own generation, died and was buried and is not “the holy one who will not see decay” mentioned in the previous verse, Acts 13:35 (cf. 1 Kings 2:10). Verse 36 does not give a reason for why “the holy one will not see decay.”
In Acts 15 we read about the Jerusalem council. Immediately after James gives his judgement in Acts 15:19-20, he says, “For (gar) the law of Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath” (Acts 15:21). Gar doesn’t introduce the reason for James’s judgement. Rather, verse 21 tells us that he thinks his judgements will be understood by the Gentiles because the law of Moses has been preached in every city, etc. James is providing additional information in verse 21, not a reason for his statements in verses 19 and 20.
In 1 Corinthians 10:4 we are told by Paul that all Israel “drank the same spiritual drink”. He then gives more information: “For (gar) they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ.” Paul is not giving the reason why they drank—presumably the reason was that the Israelites were thirsty (Exod. 17:3). Rather, Paul is giving more information about the event originally recorded in Exodus 17.
Gar is even used in 1 Timothy 2 to introduce additional information rather than a reason. The statement in 1 Timothy 2:5-6 about Jesus being the mediator between God and humanity begins with gar, but is not the reason for the previous statement in 1 Timothy 2:3-4 that God wants all people to be saved.
In John 4:43 it says that Jesus left for Galilee. Verse 44 then states: “Now (gar) Jesus himself had pointed out that a prophet has no honor in his own country” (John 4:44 NIV). The NIV, ESV, NRSV, and NET put the information in verse 44 within parentheses. Furthermore, the NIV translates gar as “now”, while a few other translations, such as the NLT and HCSB, leave gar untranslated here. Verse 44 does not give a reason why Jesus went to Galilee (John 4:43-35 NIV).
How would it change our understanding of 1 Timothy 2:12 if verses 13-14 were put in parentheses? How would it change our understanding if gar was translated in verse 13 as “now” or “yet” instead of “for”? Or if gar was left untranslated? A lot is riding on how we understand and translate the Greek word gar in verse 13.
I strongly suspect Paul did not mention the created order as a reason for his prohibition in 1 Timothy 2:12, but that he was supplying additional, correct information. (I explain why he gives this information in verses 13-14 here and here.)
Paul and the Created Order
Apart from Genesis 2, the created order is only mentioned in the Bible in two Pauline letters: First Corinthians and First Timothy. In 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 we find that Paul did not regard the created order, or the fact that the first woman came from the first human, as important. Bear with me as I explain.
In a passage that is about origins and worship, Paul refers to the creation of man and woman in verses 8-9 where he writes: “For man did not come from woman, but woman from man (cf. Gen. 2:21-22); neither was man created for woman, but woman for man” (1 Cor. 11:8-9; cf. 1 Cor. 11:3).
1 Corinthians 11:2-16 is written as a chiasm, and the corresponding verses to 8-9 are 11-12: “Nevertheless (or, except that), in the Lord, woman is not independent of man, nor is man independent of woman. For as woman came from man, so also man is born of woman (cf. Gen. 4:1 NIV). But everything comes from God” (1 Cor. 11:11-12).
Rather than placing importance on the created order, Paul points out that even if the first woman’s source was the first man, every other man since has been born from a woman. According to Paul, who came first doesn’t matter because, ultimately, we all have God as our source. Moreover, we are mutually interdependent on one another, regardless of our gender.
Paul nullifies any significance of the created order in the second part of the chiasm in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16, particularly for us who are “in the Lord”. (More about this chiasm here.) Nevertheless, some maintain that the created order somehow disqualifies every woman from teaching and leading any man for all time.
The Biblical Record of Men who were Guided by Godly Women
Alluding to 1 Timothy 2:13-14, respected scholar Douglas Moo writes, “these restrictions [in verse 12] are permanent, authoritative for the church in all times and places and circumstances as long as men and women are descended from Adam and Eve.” (Source)
If the created order of Adam and Eve really does provide an impediment for a woman teaching and leading a man, then this impediment extends beyond the church because, presumably, everyone is “descended from Adam and Eve.” Yet the Bible, both Old and New Testaments give numerous examples of men who were guided by women for their betterment and the betterment of the community of God’s people.
These men include Abraham (Gen. 21:12); two Israelite spies (Josh. 2: 8-11, 23-24; 16, 22); Barak (Judg. 4:4-6, 8); King David (1 Sam. 25:2-42); Joab (2 Sam. 20:14-22); King Lemuel (Prov. 31:1-9); King Josiah (2 Chron. 34:19-33, etc); Mordecai (Esth. 4:17 NIV); those who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem (Luke 2:37-38); the men (and women) of Sychar (John 4:4-42); Jesus’ “brothers” (John 20:17-18); Apollos (Acts 18:26); etc. (More about these men, and the women who taught and led them, here.)
In all these examples, and others, there is no hint that the men were doing anything amiss by following the advice and direction of women. In fact, there were good, even great, outcomes when they heeded the women’s words.
Furthermore, we see in the Bible that there was a respected place for prophetic women among the Israelites and, later, the Jews. Female prophets were sought out and heeded by people including kings and army generals. These women taught oracles and doctrine and made important decisions. There was also a respected place for female prophets in the very early church. But in many churches today women are denied a voice, except perhaps in backrooms where only women and children are present.
What kind of outcomes is the church, and the world, missing out on because godly women are being denied the opportunity to teach and lead both men and women? And what is it about the created order, precisely, that supposedly disqualifies a woman from teaching and leading a man?
© Margaret Mowczko 2016
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Postscript March 18 2021: Re 1 Timothy 2:14
I like what Sean du Toit, a New Testament scholar based in New Zealand, recently said in an informal online conversation regarding the idea that 1 Timothy 2:14 somehow indicates that women are more easily deceived than men.
How people could argue that women are more prone to deception, from a letter where the false teachers are men (1 Tim. 1:19-20) and have been excommunicated, is beyond me. The male false teachers have been targeting the women (2 Tim 3:6). The false teachers were the one’s who were deceived first!
Postscript December 4 2021: Re: Genesis 2-3 summaries in 1 Timothy 2:13-14
Peter Jones believes wrong ideas about creation are behind Paul’s words in 1 Corinthians 15:45. In this context he writes,
Paul engages in such a long discourse on creation because there are false notions about creation—whether Philonic, proto-Gnostic, or purely Hellenistic pagan—held by an influential group at Corinth, which affects their understanding of anthropology, soteriology, eschatology, sanctification, and resurrection.
A somewhat parallel situation occurred at Ephesus under the pastorate of Timothy. Hymenaeus and Philetus teach that τὴν ἀνάστασιν ἤδη γεγονέναι [“the resurrection has already happened”], because they affirm that the glorious future of believers has already occurred (2 Tim 2:18–19), just as in Corinth (1 Cor 15:12; cf. 1 Cor 4:8).94 They are, in essence, affirming some kind of “spiritual resurrection.” Of this Paul will have nothing.
Jones, “Paul Confronts Paganism in the Church: A Case Study of First Corinthians 15:45,” JETS 49.4 (December 2006): 713–737, 730. (A pdf of this paper is freely available here.)
I believe wrong ideas about creation are behind Paul’s corrections in 1 Timothy 2:13-14.
The Chiasm in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16
The Significance of the Created Order, in a Nutshell
The Complementarian Concept of the Created Order
1 Timothy 2:12, the created order, and Bible men who were guided by godly women
Bible Women with Spiritual Authority
Many women leaders in the Bible had this one thing in common
Prominent Biblical Scholars on Women in Ministry
Adam and Eve in Ancient Gnostic Literature (cf. 1 Tim 2:13-14)