Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism

Eve Ezer kenegdo helper subordinate rescue warrior women marriage church

Introduction

This past week, I was reminded that many Christians still believe that Eve was created to be Adam’s assistant and so she was subordinate to him. Does Eve’s “help” in Genesis 2 have the sense of “assistance”?  And does helping someone require that you subordinate yourself to that person? A few scholars whose essays I’ve read recently would answer these questions with a “yes”. They seem to have a different idea of “help” than I do.

According to Dictionary.com the English verb “help” can have many senses, but the top three are:
1. to give or provide what is necessary to accomplish a task or satisfy a need; contribute strength or means to; render assistance to; cooperate effectively with; aid; assist.
2. to save; rescue; succor.
3. to make easier or less difficult; contribute to; facilitate.

A helper, then, in English at least, is someone who does some or all of these things.

Eve as an Ezer Kenegdo

Genesis 2 tells us that Adam, who was all alone, needed help, and that a woman, Eve, was created to provide this help. The Hebrew word for “help” used here is ezer, and it is mostly used in the Hebrew Bible for God’s help. (More on ezer and how it’s used in the Hebrew Bible, here.) Importantly, ezer is qualified by the word kenegdo. Kenegdo tells us that Eve was a person who was similar to Adam, who corresponded to him, who was his equal counterpart. (More on kenegdo here.)

Eve was not an afterthought or an extra in God’s scheme. She was not a mere auxiliary or assistant for Adam. The narrative of Genesis 2:18ff, which states that it was “not good” for Adam to be alone, is designed to highlight and emphasise the vital necessity of Eve, while the naming-of-the-animals exercise highlights her unique compatibility and equality with Adam (Gen. 2:20).

Most Christians today acknowledge that Eve was equal to Adam in her being, or personhood (i.e. she was ontologically Adam’s equal). But she was also equal to Adam in her purpose and function, even if their reciprocal help was sometimes expressed in different ways. (Note that I do not use the word “equal” as necessarily, or always, meaning “the same”, especially when it comes to details rather than broad concepts.)

There is no sense of subordination in the Hebrew Bible’s description of Eve as an ezer kenegdo.[1] And there is no sense of subordination in Adam’s words about Eve in Genesis 2:23. Rather, he uses words that express affinity and similarity: “This one now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man.” Nevertheless, some Christians maintain that Eve was subordinate to Adam simply because she was a help to him.

Eve as a Subordinate Helper

Below are three quotations from three scholars who believe Eve was created inferior to Adam in purpose and function. After each quotation, I give a brief critique.

Raymond Ortlund

Raymond Ortlund writes that Eve “was Adam’s spiritual equal and, unlike the animals, ‘suitable for him.’ But she was not his equal in that she was his ‘helper.’”[2]

As God’s people, we need to be wary about accepting the proposition that a spiritual reality has little or no bearing on the physical reality. Why wouldn’t spiritual equality have a physical or practical outworking in the relationship between Adam and Eve? Also, Eve was not just Adam’s helper, she was his “helper kenegdo” which does not convey any sense of inequality in either spiritual or practical terms.

David Clines

In his essay entitled What Does Eve do to Help?, David Clines writes,

… though superiors may help inferiors, strong may help weak, gods may help humans, in the act of helping they are being ‘inferior.’ That is to say, they are subjecting themselves to a secondary, subordinate position. Their help may be necessary or crucial, but they are assisting some task that is already someone else’s responsibility. They are not actually doing the task themselves, or even in cooperation, for there is different language for that.[3]

I’ll work backwards through these statements from Clines.

Ezer is used in the Hebrew Bible with a sense of cooperation and joining forces (e.g., Isa. 30:1-5; Dan. 11:13-14 CEB). (Though, in these examples, there is a failure in delivering vital help.) In Isaiah 41:6, the cognate verb azar is used in the context of mutual help among neighbours. In Ezra 10:15, azar is used in the context of forming an alliance. So, ezer and its cognates can be used in the contexts of cooperation.

Furthermore, when we help someone, we can make the task or responsibility our own, or we can share the task or responsibility with the person who originally took it on. Importantly, even if we are helping others and empowering them to succeed in their task, I fail to see how this makes us inferior or subordinate in rank. Helping someone to succeed does not diminish us or make us subordinate.

Moreover, the superiors, the strong, and the gods in Clines’ statement, are not defined by an inferior or subordinate position to the people they supposedly help. The opposite is true. They remain the superiors. Yet Eve’s “reason for being” is incorrectly summarised by the idea of “a subordinate helper” rather than as an ezer kenegdo.

Douglas Moo

Writing about the statements about the creation and the fall in 1 Timothy 2:13-14, Douglas Moo mentions “the subordinate, helping role envisaged for [women] in creation.”[4]

In this phrase, Dr Moo links subordination with helping, but his idea of subordination is not expressed in Genesis 1 or Genesis 2. As with Ortlund and Clines, Moo seems to think that helping others is the role of a subordinate. (Please note that Dr Moo’s statement comes from a paper published in 1980 and I don’t know if he still holds this view.)

For these three men, Eve’s “reason for being,” her purpose, can be summarised by the description that she is a helper, or assistant, subordinate to Adam, rather than a vital helper equal to him.

Christians as Helpers

I regard myself as a helpful person, but I have never thought that I was being subordinate to the people I help. And when I look around at other people who are helping communities and individuals, I don’t they are subordinating themselves. In fact, some people who help have more authority and power, in certain areas, than the people they are helping, as Clines also admits.

Helping people with less power

Doctors have a level of authority in hospitals where they help their patients to get well. Police officers have a level of authority in their communities where they help to keep their communities safe. Teachers have a level of authority in educational institutions where they help their students to learn. If doctors, police officers, and teachers subordinate themselves and relinquish their positions of authority, they are less able to help the people who need them.

Helping Equals

More often than not, we help people who are our equals, our peers, where authority is simply not part of the relationship, and status is not a consideration. For instance, if I choose to mop my friend’s floors and do her laundry because she’s hurt her back, I’m not subordinating myself to her. I’m helping her as a friend.

Marriages can be at this level. Ideally, husbands and wives are equal partners who share the same level of authority and responsibility in their homes, and who, day to day, help each other and defer to each other out of mutual respect and love.

Helping people with more power

Some people do help others with more power. Servants and slaves help their masters and are subordinate to them. And employees help their employers. The level of authority of employers, however, is restricted in healthy societies, and employers and employees are, hopefully, equal in agency outside of work hours. However, according to some commentators of Genesis 2, unlike employees, Eve never gets a day off. They maintain that she is always Adam’s subordinate helper.

We are all Servants

I simply can’t see that helping someone goes hand in hand with subordinating oneself. I would hope that all of us see ourselves as people ready to help, regardless of gender. It bothers me that the idea of unequal power and the language of subordination has been pulled into conversations about Adam and Eve and into conversations about Christian men and women.

Genuine followers of Jesus are servants, but the people we help are not our masters. Ultimately, we have only one master (Matt. 23:8-12). We are servants of God. In our service, with perhaps a few exceptions, we do not subordinate ourselves to other people, especially to fellow Christians, because we all have the exact same status as both servants of God and children of God.

The Bible never asserts that Adam had a greater level of authority or responsibility than Eve. And while wives are directed in a few New Testament passages to be submissive to their husbands, all Christians are directed to be submissive to one another in Ephesians 5:21 (cf. 1 Pet. 5:5 NKJV). (I take the Greek verb hypotassō as having a sense of submission, deference, loyalty, and cooperation rather than a sense of subordination and subjection in verses that are about the relationships between Christian brothers and sisters.)

I wish all Christians could actively love, care for, and serve one another, and quit the unnecessary, unhelpful, and un-Christlike obsession with who supposedly has authority and who hasn’t. We must be careful that we do not regard or treat some Christians as though they are either superior or inferior, or of a higher or lower class than others, as all followers of Jesus are equal in being and in purpose.


Footnotes

[1] There is also no sense of subordination in the Septuagint’s excellent translation of ezer kenegdo in Genesis 2:18 and 20. See here.

[2] Raymond C. Ortlund, “Male-Female Equality and Male Headship, Genesis 1-3”, Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood: A Response to Evangelical Feminism, John Piper and Wayne Grudem (eds) (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1991), 86–104, 91.
More about Raymond Ortlund’s views on gender in Genesis 2, here.

[3] David J.A. Clines, What Does Eve Do to Help? and Other Readerly Questions to the Old Testament (JSOTSup, 94; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990), 25-48. (Available online here.)
More about David Clines’ views on Eve as helper, here.

[4] Douglas J. Moo, “1 Timothy 2:11-15: Meaning and Significance,” Trinity Journal NS (1980): 62-83, 68.
More about Moo’s views on the “roles” of men and women and the created order, here.

Image Credits

Photo of rescue helicopter taken by Thomas Walter via Pixabay.
Photo of young woman taken by Bruce Mars via Pexels.


Related Articles

The Status of Christian Women, in a Nutshell
Do women have a special obligation to be helpers?
Is a gender hierarchy implicit in the creation narrative of Genesis 2:4-25?
A Suitable Helper (in Hebrew)
A Suitable Helper (In the Septuagint)
Kenegdo: Is the woman subordinate, suitable, or similar to the man?
Jesus’ teaching on leadership and community in Matthew’s Gospel

artigos em portugues sobre igualdade entre homens e mulheres no lar e na igreja

24 thoughts on “Ezer kenegdo does not mean “a helper subordinate to him”

  1. Thank you for this. Very helpful. Rachel Naomi Remen unpacks the meaning of “helping” and concludes that it represents a relationship between unequals (the helper being the stronger of the two). She makes a compelling argument that could be used to further confound the notion that helping puts one in a position of weakness. ;). I suspect you’ll enjoy the article. Here it is. http://communityservice.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/10/In-the-Service-of-Life.pdf
    See you on Facebook. 🙂

    Peace.

    1. Thanks, Tracy, I’ll take a look.

      I’ve heard some people say that ezer implies that the woman was the stronger of the two, but I feel the word/phrase kenegdo indicates that the couple had an equal strength and a similar capacity for helping.

      I like what Kenneth Bailey says on this topic:
      “It was not Eve who was lonely, unable to manage and needed help. Instead, it was Adam who could not manage alone. Eve was then created as an ‘ezera [feminine of ezer] . . . a powerful figure who comes to the help/save someone who is in trouble. The Hebrew word ‘ezer is often used for God . . . The word ‘ezer does not refer to a lowly assistant but to a powerful figure who comes to help/save someone who is in trouble. . . . Women, as descendants of Eve, are placed by God in the human scene as the strong who come to help/save the needy (the men).”
      Kenneth Bailey, Paul Through Mediterranean Eyes: Cultural Studies in 1 Corinthians (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2011), 310.

      I mention this quotation in my article Three scholars with two views on Eve’s role as helper, here.

  2. John 13:5,12-15 [New American Standard Bible] comes to mind, and why I [all women] and the male counterparts freely participate in this ceremony within the church. Outstanding article. We are ALL servants if we truly follow Christ. >> Alison

    1. I wonder it if would make a difference, a good difference, if all churches practised the ceremony of foot-washing. I think it might.

      Thanks, Alison.

  3. To help (if it is of our volition) is to be powerful. (Mopping your friend’s floors with your good back while her’s is injured.)
    But unfortunately “service” is habitually associated with economic compulsion.

    God’s categories are not ours.
    Jesus demonstrates this at The Last Supper.
    John 13;1
    When he had finished washing their feet, he put on his clothes and returned to his place. “Do you understand what I have done for you?” he asked them. “You call me ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord,’ and rightly so, for that is what I am. Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another’s feet. I have set you an example that you should do as I have done for you. Very truly I tell you, no servant is greater than his master, nor is a messenger greater than the one who sent him. Now that you know these things, you will be blessed if you do them.

    Jesus helps, but is in no way “subordinate” (in the “human-ranking” sense of the word).
    But, the very essence of Divine love is “not to cling to His Godhead” but “to empty (subordinate) himself”…….
    in The Incarnation,
    being “in-Mary”,
    being born in a stable, and
    “Then He went down to Nazareth with them and was subject to them. But His mother treasured up all these things in her heart.”(Luke 2:51)
    Accepting humiliation & death.

    To love, as God (who is infinitely powerful) loves, is to humble oneself.
    God is often paradoxical.
    But it is… to humble oneself for love; …..for love of others.
    To humble oneself for other motives is something else.
    The habitual human categories of power, subordination, ranking, self-loathing are irrelevant to this, but our language is limited & we have to use the same words.

    Jesus helps, but is in no way “subordinate”
    Mary (as The New Eve) helps but is in every way subordinate. (being a creature)
    Eve was “helper”; Mary is “The handmaid of The Lord”
    Eve “facilitated”(helped) the Fall; But Mary “facilitated”(helped) Salvation.
    The God, who humbles himself, put the whole of his salvation-plan (Plan A at least!) at the mercy of Mary’s consent.
    God places man’s salvation in the hands of a Jewish maid (who could be stoned according to the Law for being with child). Gloriously she said “yes” for all humanity

    This is the meaning of Mary as “co-redemptrix” (co-operater-helper).
    Mary’s unique co-operation & participation, with and under, her Divine Son Jesus Christ, in the historic Redemption of humanity.
    So she is the helper “par-excellence”, but she is the first among all creatures.

    1. The word in reference to Eve isn’t “service”, it’s “help” (ezer), and this word is always used in the Hebrew Bible in powerful contexts, and mostly about God’s help.

      I have never seen ezer translated as “service” or “servant”, and it would change the meaning of the verse if someone did.
      For example,
      “There is no God like the God of Jeshurun, who rides on the heavens to serve you, and on the clouds of His majesty” does not mean the same as “There is no God like the God of Jeshurun, who rides on the heavens to help you, and on the clouds of His majesty” (Deut. 33:26).

      If you want to check the context, I list each of the 21 verses that contains ezer at the end of this article: https://margmowczko.com/a-suitable-helper/

      The words used by the translator(s) in the Septuagint gives good insight into the meaning and nuances of ezer kenegdo: https://margmowczko.com/a-suitable-helper-in-the-septuagint/

  4. In my first blog, I posted a topic about the wives’ role and stated something similar regarding the words “Ezer” and “Kenedgdo” . I even mentioned that in the bible even refers to God as our “ezer” a couple of scriptures and of course God is not our inferior. I agree that helping another doesn’t put you in an inferior position. In fact many times, the stronger helps the weaker whether it’s physically, or a weaker position and status. I agree Eve was created to be Adam’s companion equal to him spiritually, worth and value and function since God created both male and female in his own image. Unfortunately, patriarchy influences on Christianity misinterpreted the scriptures to fit into their mold delegating women to an inferior position. Luckily this is changing even among plenty of complentarians known as soft or moderate complentarians. Another good article and God Bless.

    1. I’m also grateful that many Christians are realising that Eve (and women in general) were not designed to be inferior or subordinate to Adam (or to men in general). In fact, it amazes me that some Christians can still think this way. This is not what Jesus taught. And it’s not what Paul taught.

  5. Thank you so much for your work!
    I’ve had some huge hang ups with Christianity and the supposed inferiority of women. It was VERY damaging to my faith.
    I’m so glad I found your articles. Thank you!

    1. Thanks for your comment, Rachel.
      It’s a real problem that there are forms of Christianity that damage faith. 🙁

  6. Well written and interesting article. Thanks for sharing!

    We recognize that names in Genesis are largely symbolic. Even if you spin all Eve’s symbolic descriptions, you’re talking pre-fall. You’re forgetting Gen. 3:16 and the curses on “Eve”: birthing pains, husband rules. This was not God’s plan for mankind, but it is the unfortunate reality after leaving the garden.

    I’d be curious to know how you read that.

    1. Hi Jared,

      I didn’t forget Genesis 3:16, but it has nothing to do with what the words ezer kenegdo mean.

      Just to be clear, neither Adam or Eve were cursed; it was the serpent and the ground who were cursed. These curses, however, would make life harder and less harmonious for the couple and for humankind.

      Because of Adam and Eve’s disobedience, humanity needed a saviour, and we got one. As redeemed followers of Jesus, Genesis 3:16 has little bearing on our lives today, even if it did before Jesus’ death and resurrection, and before Pentecost.

      We have a new life in Jesus Christ, a new way of relating. Still, this doesn’t have anything to do with what ezer kenegdo means.

      1. If it’s not a curse, what is it?

        Sandwiched between the curse on the serpent and the curse on the “ground” (obviously meant to inconvenience Adam), God “promises” Eve pain.

        After the fall, Adam names Eve, claiming dominion over her.

        You’re right, none of this has anything to do with what ezer kenegdo means. However, this read less like a language lesson and more like an attempt to convince others Eve was an equal.

        She may have been created ezer kenegdo pre-fall, but that didn’t last long. Again, not God’s plan for us, but the whole story is they lived beyond that.

        1. Consequences and perhaps punishments, but the word for “curse” is not used in regards to the man or the woman in the biblical text. I prefer to stick with the text.

          Adam named his wife Eve, which means “life”. This doesn’t sound like a name for a cursed person given by a cursed person.

          Also, there no reason to presume Adam naming Eve implies dominion. The biblical text doesn’t say he did this as an act of dominion. Again, I prefer to stick with what the text says. Furthermore, Hagar named God in Genesis 16:3, and she didn’t have dominion over God. (More on Adam naming Eve here.)

          “An attempt to convince others Eve was equal”? Adam and Eve were equal at creation but, I agree, it didn’t last. Men and women were also equal in Genesis chapter one: they had the exact same status, the same authority, and the same purpose (Gen 1:26-28). Both men and women were given dominion over animals, but not over each other.

          This post does not include a “language lesson”. I’ve explored the language in previous posts, ezer here and kenegdo here, and the Septuagint’s translation of ezer kenegdo, here.

          This post is primarily a critique of people, including the three scholars I’ve quoted from, who think Eve was created as a subordinate helper even though the biblical text simply does not say this, but instead uses the words ezer kenegdo.

          Thankfullym we live in a time, post-Pentecost, when there is the potential to live with the same kind of harmony and unity that Adam and Eve shared, and men and women can reclaim their original status, authority, and purpose, while we wait for the future fulfilment, the future shalom (Rom. 8:18ff).

          Shalom!

  7. I am thankful for your patience and persistence to continuously and clearly explain God’s original design for humankind to work in equal partnership beside one another for His glory. May you have a happy and healthy New Year, Marg! God bless you!

    1. Happy New Year, Kathy! 😀

  8. Thank you for a good article. I also understand that any other time the term Ezer kenegdo is used. I think maybe 16 or so times, it Is in reference to God and more specifically God’s own Presence coming in to a desperate situation for a rescue. God certainly was and is not subordinate to man so that proves your case. As far as rank however Adam came first and she was formed from his rib and not the way he was namely from the ground. There seems to be something implied by this that she was different and still same. From Adam and for Adam. For his need and rescue which elevates her in a sense yet it gives him value as being worth rescuing. Rank is strongly implied here but not an issue until sin entered in. Then the battle to control in all the wrong ways enters too. In pronouncing judgement, it appears she is under subjection but for protection from her own devices and yet protection will come from God not man and that works as she obeys the position mandated by a wise and loving God. Lots to think about. Not about value. They are of quality value. Both are judged by obedience to Gods law or to its provision for lack of obedience, namely the death and resurrection of Jesus.

    1. Hi Maru,

      I’ve included all the verses where the word Ezer occurs here: https://margmowczko.com/a-suitable-helper/

      Some people interpret “Adam first, Eve second” as implying rank. However, a difference in rank between the first man and first woman is not the message of Genesis 2. Rather the similarities between Adam and Eve are explicitly stated. And there is certainly no difference in rank or status in Genesis 1:26-28 where men and women have the same status, the same authority, and the same purpose.

      Also, the traditional English translation “rib” is not the best translation. “Side” is a more accurate translation from the Hebrew (tsela) and from the Greek (pleura). The first woman was made from the side (bone and flesh) of the first human. (See Genesis 2:21-23.)

      Unfortunately, sin did spoil the unity and mutuality of the first couple. But it is incorrect to suggest that Eve, but not Adam, needed to be protected from her own devices. After all, Adam ate the forbidden fruit too. And a “battle of control” is an overstatement. Where is the evidence from history that wives have consistently battled to control their husbands? (There is nothing like a battle to control in my marriage or in my home.)

      Kenegdo has a sense of mutuality and reciprocity, indicating that, while Eve helps Adam, Adam also helps Eve. There is absolutely no sense of elevation or of subjection in kenegdo. The apostle Paul also wrote about this kind of mutuality. In referring to the created order, he notes, “Nevertheless, in the Lord woman is not independent of man or man independent of woman. For just as woman came from man, so man comes through woman; but all things come from God.”

      For those of us who are “in the Lord” mutual interdependence and service is what’s important, not who came first, because God is the source of all, of both men and women.

      Man ruling over woman is a consequence of sin (Gen 3:16b). It is not God’s plan for us. We can do better than this. We can humbly and mutually submit to one another (Eph. 5:21).

  9. You might be interesting in my translation of this curious phrase. In essence I claim that the verse argues that the woman is a kind of savior, in effect, her existence is required for human flourishing, she is the main actor in this verse – not the man, and the relationship she brings to the man is to civilize male promiscuity. I hope you enjoy it,

    http://learn-biblical-hebrew.com/hebrew-scripture/garden-of-eden-story/genesis-218/

    Blessings,

    1. Interesting Michael. Though I’m not understanding why you think Genesis 2:16-17, and the mention of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, implies “that sexual activity would put his immortality at risk.”

      1. Thanks for your reply and your question. Let me know if my answer is on point:

        You ask, “why [do] you think Genesis 2:16-17, and the mention of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, implies “that sexual activity would put his immortality at risk?”

        Technically, I do not claim that sexual activity puts their immortality at risk. If I worded it that way, I’m wrong and will need to correct it. I apologize if I left you with the wrong impression. So, allow me to clarify: the immortality of the primordial couple is put at risk by the existence of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. This risk is ever present in that IF they eat the fruit they will become mortal. Of course, mortality is ultimately a death sentence.

        Once the fruit is eaten, the consequence of their mortality and the reasons behind their expulsion now come into view. These consequences are summarized by a number of scholars, but my answer follows that of Claus Westermann and Marc Zvi Brettler. Brettler, I think, summarizes the idea best when he writes (and I quote – see below):

        “Eating from this tree (the tree of life) would allow people to become both immortal and sexual, creating an overpopulation problem. The first couple was expelled not as punishment, but so that they might not “take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever!” [see NOTE 1]).

        As for sexuality, I believe that most scholars now accept the proposal that the phrase “knowledge of good and evil” means awareness of sexuality [see NOTE 2]. At an allegorical level the story of Adam and Eve is a story of innocence lost and sexuality gained. A good analogy, and one I use in my commentary, is that of adolescents reaching and passing through puberty. Prior to puberty (not having eaten from the tree) they are sexually unaware hence “they were naked and not embarrassed” — not unlike a 3 year-old boy and his 3-year old sister sharing the same bath tub. After eating from the tree, however, they become erotically charged and acquire carnal knowledge (through intercourse). This behavior explains why they cover only their genitals. They have become sexually aware and capable of responding to their natural erotic urges.

        I hope this clarifies. And, by the way, I’m enjoying your writing immensely.

        NOTE 1: Brettler, M.Z., “How to Read the Jewish Bible”, pp 45, 46
        NOTE 2: Claus Westermann, “Genesis 1-11”: on pages 242-243, Westermann summarizes the prevailing theories of the meaning of hada’at tov vara and concludes that this knowledge is sexual or erotic in nature. At the risk of beating a dead horse, I would also like to quote Nahum Sarna on this topic (p. 19, The JPS Torah Commentary): “Ibn Ezra, followed by many modern [scholars], understood carnal knowledge to be intended since the first human experience after eating the fruit is the consciousness of nudity accompanied by shame.”

        1. Thanks for including the sources. I appreciate that some scholars may believe this, but most Christian scholars don’t. I personally don’t think there was anything sexual about the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

  10. Marg,
    Thank you so much. I am almost in tears, because I finally found a site to read, that doesn’t scold me or put me down as a woman, while teaching me. I went on a couple of other female-led sites and the writer/teacher got angry with me and other women, but we are not being rude or mean, just asking questions.

    Thank you. Please keep teaching and discussing the Scripture with women.

    1. I’m sorry for your experience, Beryl. There is no scolding here. 🙂

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