Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism

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In the Gospels, there are several passages where Jesus teaches against the worldly systems of authority, and where he proposes a social system that is quite the opposite of what we are accustomed to. Jesus especially warns against notions of power, prestige, and primacy among his own followers. In Jesus’ kingdom, the humble are exalted, the lowly are the greatest, and the last are first.[1] This article looks at a few passages of Jesus’ teaching recorded in Matthew’s Gospel which show that Jesus promoted the social values of humility and equality.

Matthew 18:3–4

“Truly I tell you, unless you change and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Therefore, whoever takes the lowly position of this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven.” (NIV)

When I read these words in Matthew 18:3–4 recently, it struck me that becoming a child is exactly what Jesus did. Jesus became incarnate as a helpless baby and lived as a human child with no status, prestige, or power.

When he returns to earth it will be in spectacular fashion: on the clouds and with thousands of angels in procession. Jesus could have come in a similar manner the first time, but he chose to identify with us and come in a humble manner. He even came into this earth in the same way we all have, through the body of a woman.

When he grew up and began his teaching and healing ministry, Jesus ministered as “one who serves” (Luke 22:26–28). He took on the “form of a slave (doulos)” (Phil. 2:7). Jesus did not just teach about humility and service, he demonstrated it from his birth to his death (Phil. 2:8).

I like what Richard Bauckham has said in the context of Jesus washing his disciples’ feet in John’s Gospel, which wasn’t merely a gesture but a concrete example of service and ministry (John 13:14–17).

Jesus thus took the unparalleled step of abolishing social status, not by giving all the disciples the status of master … but by reducing all to the lowest social status: that of slave. In a society of slaves, no one may think him– or herself more important than others.”
Richard Bauckham, Jesus: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2011), 77. (Google Books)

I truly think that most of the church, myself included, still has no real grasp of what it means to serve and be great in God’s kingdom (Matt. 18:1–6).

Matthew 20:25–28

“You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over (katakurieúō) them, and those in high positions act as tyrants over (katexousiázō) them.[2] It must not be like that among you. On the contrary, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first among you must be your slave; just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” (CSB, italics and Greek words added)

Jesus rarely referred to himself with lofty titles. As he does here, he usually called himself “the Son of Man,” a title that highlights his humanity.[3] Moreover, he presents himself as an example to follow, the example of a servant.

Christian leadership and ministry is about being a servant, even a slave. That is, the calling and authorisation from God to function as a minister is the commission to serve God and his people as a slave would. Much has been said about “servant leadership,” yet too many Christian leaders still seem overly concerned with maintaining a position, a level of status and professionalism, a level of control and clout, rather than serving and working alongside other community members in the church.

Paul was sure of his calling to ministry and he wrote authoritative letters to churches, sometimes with strong instructions, yet he did not assume that he had authority over individuals. For example, in 2 Corinthians 1:24 we read that Paul and his colleagues did not want to “lord it over” (kurieuō) the Christians in Corinth, rather they wanted to work together with them in a partnership.[4]

In New Testament passages that speak about church leadership, there is no Greek word that means “over.” A Christian minister does not have authority “over” those he or she cares for. A minister does, however, have a responsibility towards them. Then again, every member of a church community has a responsibility concerning the spiritual and material well-being of their fellow members (1 Cor. 12:24–25).

The church as a whole has been invested with authority and power by the Holy Spirit so that collectively we can act as agents of the Messiah and continue his work. This is a collective authority to speak and act; it is not an authority of one person over another fellow believer. [I have more on this in my article Authority in the Church which is here.]

Matthew 23:8–12

“But you are not to be called ‘Rabbi,’ because you have one Teacher, and you are all brothers and sisters. Do not call anyone on earth your father, because you have one Father, who is in heaven. You are not to be called instructors either, because you have one Instructor, the Messiah. The greatest among you will be your servant. Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.” (CSB)

Jesus’ words in Matthew 23:8–12 were said in response to the honour the Pharisees were receiving and the manner they were using their authority. Jesus’ teaching is a warning against giving our own leaders too much praise and power. While we should respect our leaders and teachers who are worthy, we need to be wary that this respect does not become adulation. Jesus reminds us that all of us, teachers and leaders included, are brothers and sisters (adelphoi). We are kin. We are equal.

Another interpretation of this verse is that we are all students.[5] Since we are all kin, or we are all students, there should be no place for hierarchies in the church (cf. Matt. 10:24–25a). The Message captures the sense of Matthew 23:8–10 well:

“Don’t let people do that to you, put you on a pedestal like that. You all have a single Teacher, and you are all classmates. Don’t set people up as experts over your life, letting them tell you what to do. Save that authority for God; let him tell you what to do. No one else should carry the title of ‘Father’; you have only one Father, and he’s in heaven. And don’t let people manoeuvre you into taking charge of them. There is only one Life-Leader for you and them—Christ.” (MSG)[6]

Rather than being concerned with what terminology we should or shouldn’t use to call our leaders, Jesus was giving us a principle to follow. Further on in Matthew chapter 23, Jesus uses the words prophets, sages, and teachers/ scribes (grammateis) for certain ministers (Matt. 23:34). In Ephesians 4:11 Paul refers to ministry leaders as apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers. Both Jesus and Paul used words that describe the ministry of people functioning in their particular gifts, but they did not use these words as prestigious or elite titles.

Equal Honour and Equal Concern

Like Jesus, Paul also cautioned against elevating and adulating certain individuals above others within the body of Christ. Paul taught that we should give honour to those who lack it; that way there is a levelling of honour in the church. He also taught that we should have equal concern and regard for one another (1 Cor. 12:24–25).

And those parts of the body that we consider less honorable, we clothe these with greater honor, and our unrespectable parts are treated with greater respect, which our respectable parts do not need. Instead, God has put the body together, giving greater honor to the less honorable, so that there would be no division in the body, but that the members would have the same concern for each other. So if one member suffers, all the members suffer with it; if one member is honored, all the members rejoice with it. 1 Corinthians 12:23–26 CSB.


Jesus’ teaching on leadership and community is different from those who hold patriarchal views on leadership and community. Jesus did not elevate the social standing of one group (men) while holding down another group (women). Rather he tells all of us to aspire—just as he did—to the social standing of children (Matt. 18:4) and servants (Luke 22:26–27) and slaves (Phil. 2:5–7 NRSV). The church has a long way to go before it truly accepts and practises the social values of the New Creation that Jesus embodied.

Jesus on leadership and community, Matthew


[1] Jesus’ saying, “The first will be last, and the last will be first,” which is repeated on several occasions in the Gospels, should put an end to the specious doctrine that connects the created order with male authority. More on the created order here.

[2] Katakurieúō is a composite word: kata = down + kurieúō = act as lord or master.
Etymology: Rulership is directed in a downward direction. However, the kata prefix may simply be acting as an intensifier.
Meaning: exercise authority over, exercise lordship, overpower, etc.
This word is found in Matthew 20:25, Mark 10:42, Acts 19:16, and 1 Peter 5:3. It also occurs several times in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament.)
Katexousiázō is also a composite word: kata = down + exousiázō = exercise authority.
Etymology: Authority is directed in a downward direction. Again, however, kata is probably acting as an intensifier.
Meaning: exert authority oppressively; dominate strongly; act as a tyrant.
The word is found only in Matthew 20:25 and Mark 10:42 in the New Testament. It does not occur in the Septuagint and is rare in other Greek literature.

[3] “Son of Man” can also be translated as “Son of Humanity.” One English translation, the Common English Bible (CEB), translates the traditional “Son of Man” as “Human One.” There’s more on the CEB’s choice of “Human One” on Bible Gateway here.

[4] Cynthia Long Westfall makes this observation about Jesus’ and Paul’s leadership. Their service was practical and authentically hard and humble.

The examples of both Paul and Jesus describe leadership in the Christian community in terms of servants and slaves. Both Jesus and Paul modeled working hard on behalf of others. They also subjected themselves to dishonor and mistreatment. Their model of leadership cannot be glossed over or bleached into describing exercise of unilateral benevolent power. Their example of servitude was literal in the way it was meant to function, rather than a part of ritual or metaphor.
Westfall, Paul and Gender: Reclaiming the Apostle’s Vision for Men and Women in Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2016), 252.

[5] Some English translations have chosen to translate adelphoi (usually translated as “brothers” or “brothers and sisters”) as “students” or “classmates” in keeping with the context of Matthew 23:8ff.

[6] Side issue: Does Matthew 23:8-12 hint at the Trinity? Is our Teacher the Holy Spirit? (Luke 12:12; John 14:26 cf. 1 John 2:27).

© Margaret Mowczko 2014
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Image Credits

Excerpt from Jesus washing Jesus’s Feet painted by artist Ford Madox Brown in 1852–1856. (Wikimedia)
Towel and Basin by Sterlsev via iStock

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14 thoughts on “Jesus on Leadership & Community in Matthew’s Gospel

  1. Your suggestion that the teacher of Mt. 23:8 is the Spirit is intriguing. You note Lk. 12:12, and there is a parallel passage about the Spirit speaking through disciples in Mt. 10:20, though the word teach is only used in Lk. Throughout Matthew, Jesus is “the” teacher, often in conflict with rabbis (who are a contrast also in 23:8). In 10:24-25 Jesus connects the disciple/teacher relationship with that of the servant/master; since the teacher in 23:8 is linked in 23:10 with the one master, the Christ, it seems both probably again refer to Christ. Yet at the end of Matthew, the commission to teach everything Jesus commanded comes after speaking of baptism in(to) the name (the presence and power) of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (28:19-20).

    The CEB translation of the Son of Man as the Human One misses the Dan. 7:14 allusion. The explanation given by the CEB in your link mentions Dan. 7 (about one like a son of man), and then equates this with a (human) son of man. The problem is that “like” a son of man does not mean a son of man, but someone “like” a son of man. In fact, this one like a son of man in Dan. 7:13 is an exalted heavenly figure who comes with the clouds of heaven to the Ancient of Days (God, portrayed “like” an old man with white hair, in 7:9) and is then given dominion, glory, and kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion (7:14). The irony of Mt. 20:25-28 is that although the Gentiles lord it over others, the Son of Man (who will in the future rule over all peoples) presently humbles himself on earth to serve. In 26:64 Jesus tells the Jewish high priest that in the future he will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven. This Son of Man will have the final word of authority over (against) all earthly authorities.

  2. Thanks Lucas. Thought provoking comments as usual. 🙂
    Yes, when Jesus comes back it will be very different!

    I’ve written about the Son of Man/Humanity here: https://margmowczko.com/christian-theology/son-of-man-john-527/ but it is not something I am very knowledgeable about. Some scholars believe that the One like a Son of Man/Humanity in Daniel is identified as such because his rule will be humane rather than oppressive. Not sure about that.

  3. i would love to know this, as a leader through the teaching of Jesus Christ, we are servant but not ruler or to use authority or power but we are to serve rather for one to serve us. my question is this, why if you are leading people and you observed that the people you are leading cannot listen to you or respect your decision, what can you do?

    1. There must be a reason someone is not being listened to and having their decisions respected. I would try and find out this reason.

  4. Thanks for good article, Please keep on writing this kind of articles. It is a good sermon too.
    by Dama

    1. Thanks, Dama.

  5. Wonderful. I was thinkling recently that we needed to replace all the places we talk about “authority” in ministry to others with “responsibility.”
    You are the first place I see talking about it. Thanks.

  6. […] Jesus’s Teaching on Leadership and Community in Matthew’s Gospel […]

  7. I think it’s interesting to look at how the word κυριεύουσιν (κυριεύω / kurieúō) is used in Luke 22:25, the rest of the New Testament and in Genesis 3:16.

    Luke – 22:25 – the kings of the Gentiles lord it over them and those in authority over them are called benefactors. But not so with you.

    Paul uses kurieúō negatively in Romans to say that “death” (6:9), “sin” (6:14) and “the law” (7:1) no longer “rule over” or “have mastery over” Christ and believers. The only positive use in Romans is 14:9 – ”For to this end Christ died and lived again, so that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living.“. Believers have only one Lord/ruler/authority and it is Christ – not any other human.

    In the Septuagint, kurieúō is the word used in Genesis 3:16 when God describes the negative results of the Fall and its impact on the male/female, husband/wife relationships -“he will lord it over you.”

    In Genesis 1:28, humanity – men and women in partnership were jointly given the job to κατακυριεύσατε (rule over, lord it over) creation. But the result of the fall is that man lords it over the woman. The stronger humans dominate the weaker humans.

    Jesus says it’s not supposed to be that way – lording it over others is a Gentile (in his context, “outside the covenant people, outside Gods family”) sort of behavior.

    Just think it’s interesting how Katakurieúō / kurieúō gets used in both the Septuagint and the NT and how clearly that shows “ruling over” behavior to be outside of Gods original creation intent as well as his New Covenant intent.

    1. Thanks for this, Michelle.

  8. […] [4] In the highly stratified society of the ancient world, leadership was hierarchical and often patriarchal, and the customs of patronage gave the patron or patroness both prestige and power. But these social dynamics have no place in the church. Having power over or ruling over another capable adult brother or sister is unacceptable behaviour for a Christian. It goes against what Jesus taught. […]

  9. […] Jesus’s Teaching on Leadership and Community in Matthew’s Gospel […]

  10. […] Hypotassō has a range of meanings or nuances and a range of forces. It’s a worry when Christians understand the word as having a relatively severe sense with a relatively strong force in the context of Christian marriage. I don’t think the words “subordinate” or “subject” should ever be used in the context of Christian relationships among capable adults, among mature brothers and sisters in Christ.

    Subordinating or subjecting people is the opposite of what Jesus taught about relationships that are “in Christ.” And expecting or continually accepting one-sided submission from a fellow believer is not the ideal that Paul wanted for Jesus-followers. […]

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