The Dream of Pilate’s Wife
In chapters 26 and 27 of Matthew’s Gospel, the author sets a compelling scene. Jesus has been arrested, deserted by his male disciples, denied by Peter, beaten and humiliated by callous men under the jurisdiction of the High Priest, and he is now standing before Pilate, the governor of Judea.
In contrast to Jesus’ vulnerable and lonely state, a large clamorous crowd made up of locals and pilgrims—all in “holy-day” mood because of the Passover festival—are being incited by some powerful religious leaders who want Jesus dead.
Behind the scenes is Pilate’s wife. She has had a dream that is troubling her. Because of the dream, she knows Jesus is innocent of any crime.
In the ancient world, everyone, from all stations of life, believed in signs and auguries of various kinds. This was how the gods communicated to people. Dreams, especially, were thought to be a typical way the gods, including the God of Israel, spoke to people.
The Bible records several people receiving dreams from God. The dreams of Joseph (Matt. 1:20; 2:13, 19-20, 22) and of the Magi (Matt. 2:12), as well as the dream of Pilate’s wife, are mentioned in Matthew’s Gospel.
Pilate’s wife had not yet told her husband the dream. But now Jesus is standing before her husband and she has vital insight into the situation.
While Pilate is already sitting on the seat of judgement in the public square, she hastily writes a message and hands it to a servant who delivers it to her husband. The message reads, “Don’t have anything to do with that innocent man, for I have suffered a great deal today in a dream because of him” (Matt. 27:19 NIV).
Despite the stresses of the situation, it seems Pilate listened to his wife’s message and took it seriously.
Pilate calls out and asks the crowd, “What do you want me to do with Jesus?” When the crowd shouts back, “Crucify him!” he asks, “What crime has he committed?” Pilate knows that the real reason for Jesus’ arrest is the self-interest of jealous religious leaders (Matt. 27:18).
Pilate was known for his brutality and he did not shy away from bloodshed. Yet, he washes his hands of the situation and hands over the responsibility of Jesus’ fate to the crowd, a responsibility and culpability they accept. Nonetheless, most of the Christian Church consider Pilate guilty of Jesus’ death because he did not release him.
Who was Pilate’s Wife?
Matthew’s narrative of Jesus’ arrest, interrogation, and crucifixion is reaching its climax when the author includes the line about Pilate’s wife. Why did he choose to include this piece of information about her dream and her message?
The information recorded in Matthew 27:19 can only have come from someone close to Pilate. Perhaps Pilate’s wife is the source of the information that she, herself, relayed to the first Christians. The original audience of Matthew’s Gospel may even have known her. Origen, in his commentary on Matthew, suggests she became a Christian.
In the spurious Acts of Pilate—which is included in the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, a collection of writings written between 150-400—there is a fuller account of Jesus’ appearance before Pilate. Most elements of the story are fabrications but some may contain a germ of truth.
In this apocryphal account, Pilate describes his wife, who is named Procula or Procle, as a God-worshipper, that is, a Gentile convert to Judaism. He tells some Jewish leaders, “‘You know that my wife is a worshipper of God, and prefers to adhere to the Jewish religion along with you.’ And they reply to him, ‘Yes, we know'” (Acts of Pilate 2.1). Procula is mentioned again in 11.2.
That Pilate’s wife was a convert to Judaism seems likely when we consider that she was in Jerusalem during the Passover, when the city was not safe because of heightened religious fervour, rather than at home at the governor’s residence in Caesarea. As a God-worshipper, she may have come to Jerusalem especially to observe the Jewish festival of Passover.
While it is plausible that Pilate’s wife was a convert to Judaism and may also have become a Christian, we cannot know this with certainty. Whatever the case, of all the characters mentioned in Matthew’s Gospel, she is the only person who states Jesus’ innocence.
In opposition to the will of the Jewish leaders, and against the determined shouts of the crowd, she sent a firm message telling her husband what to do, or, rather, what not to do: “Don’t have anything to do with that innocent man …” This is no small thing; it would have taken some courage. In some churches, Pilate’s wife continues to be celebrated for responding to the dream she received and for declaring Jesus’ innocence.
 There is an echo in Matthew 27:19 to the story of Calpurnia’s dream. Calpurnia, the wife of Julius Caesar, had a dream about her husband’s murder, so she warned him not to go to the Senate during the Ides of March (Plutarch’s Life of Caesar 63.8-11). Caesar was killed in the senate-house on the Ides of March, on the 15th of March 44 BC, to be precise.
 One interesting fictional element in one version of the Acts of Pilate is that the woman who was cured of an issue of blood (Matt. 9:20–22; Mark 5:25–34, Luke 8:43–48) testifies before Pilate, and she is given the name Veronica in the Greek text and equivalent Berenice in the Latin.
There was found there also a woman named Veronica, and she said, “Twelve years I was in an issue of blood, and I only touched the edge of his garment, and directly I was cured.” The Jews say, “Our law does not admit the testimony of a woman.” Acts of Pilate (second Greek form) 7.
 Pilate’s wife is recognised as a saint, Saint Procula, in the Eastern Orthodox Church and in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, her feast day is celebrated on the 27th of October.
© Margaret Mowczko 2017
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In a poem published in 1611, author Amelia Lanyer uses the character of Pilate’s wife who speaks to her husband and holds him responsible for Jesus’ crucifixion. She tells him that having Jesus condemned to death is a worse sin than Eve’s, which brought about the subjugation and cruel treatment of women, and she asks for freedom and equality for women. More about Amelia Lanyer and her poem here.
There is a letter that claims to have been written by Pilate’s wife, Claudia Procula, but it is not ancient. It may date from the fifteenth century. The letter can be read here or here.
Actress Claudia Gerini plays Pilate’s wife in The Passion of the Christ (2004). In the film, she is given the name Claudia Procles.
The only woman to give evidence at the trial of Jesus by Michael Frost