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For this is the way the holy women of the past who put their hope in God used to adorn themselves. They submitted themselves to their own husbands, like Sarah, who obeyed Abraham and called him ‘lord.’ You are her daughters if you do what is right and do not give way to fear. 1 Peter 3:5–6

I’ve read this scripture countless times and have never questioned what Peter wrote. I just accepted that there must be numerous “holy women of the past” who were examples of the kind of wifely submission that is promoted in many churches today. I had also simply accepted that Sarah must have been a particularly good example of wifely submission.

Just recently though, I’ve been taking a closer look at 1 Peter, and I’ve started asking some questions about the text. For example, Who were these “holy women of the past”? And, In what way was Sarah submissive to Abraham? Here are some of my findings and thoughts.

The Holy Women of the Past

In 1 Peter 3:1ff, Peter addressed the Christian women of Asia Minor and he urged them to be submissive to their (mostly) unsaved husbands. He also wanted them to focus on their inner beauty rather than on their outer beauty and live their lives in purity.[1]

These wives were in a difficult situation. They were part of the fledgling church that was being slandered, and at least some of the women were afraid of what their husbands might do to them. It was expected that wives would worship the same gods as their husbands,[2] but these women were not doing that. They were following Jesus.

1 Peter 3:1-6 is about “damage control,” but Peter also offers hope. If the wives don’t make waves and continue to abide by cultural standards of respectability, including submission to their husbands, perhaps some husbands may even be won over to the Christian faith.

Peter hoped the virtuous behaviour and lifestyle of the Christian wives might be persuasive and “win” (a missionary term) the husbands. These men had been unpersuaded by the Word (logos), but Peter suggests they may be won to the Christian faith without a word (logos) from their godly Christian wives.

Peter used the examples of the “holy women of the past” to illustrate how the women in Asia Minor should behave. But who exactly were these holy women who Peter had in mind?

As I go through the list of Bible women in my mind, apart from Sarah, I cannot find one single clear example of a woman who submitted to her husband. On the contrary, the Bible gives us numerous examples of holy women who did not behave in (what much of the Church would consider) a submissive manner towards their husbands.[3]

Several holy women took the initiative in significant situations, without the apparent permission, protection, or cooperation from men. These women include Moses’ mother (Exod. 2:1–3), Rahab (Josh. 2:1–6), Deborah (Judg. 4–5), Ruth (Ruth 2:2–3; 3:1–6), Hannah (1 Sam. ch. 1–2), and a well-to-do Shunammite woman (2 Kings 4:8–37), etc.[4]

Several holy women were the primary or first recipients of divine, angelic, or prophetic visitations, without the intervention or presence of a husband or male guardian. The following are just a few examples where God, an angel, or a prophet spoke directly to a woman: Rebekah (Gen. 25:22–23); Samson’s mother (Judg. 13); the “Wailing Women” (Jer. 9:17); Mary, the mother of Jesus (Luke 1:26–38); Mary Magdalene (Matt. 28:9–10; Mark 16:9–11; John 20:17–18), etc. Moreover, Huldah, Miriam, Deborah, Anna, and Philip’s daughters are acknowledged as respected prophetesses in the Bible.

Several holy women went against authority figures, disobeyed laws, and disregarded the wishes of their own husbands. Shiphrah and Puah disobeyed Pharaoh’s command, and God blessed them for their disobedience (Exod. 1:15–21). Rebekah, Abigail, and Jael went against their husband’s wishes. There is no hint of censure against Rebekah in the Bible (Gen. 27:1–28:2), Abigail was commended for her wise and brave actions (1 Sam. 25), and Jael is praised in Judges 4 and 5. Queen Esther, in order to save the Jewish people, disobeyed a law and risked her life by coming into her husband’s presence without being summoned (Esth. 4:11; 5:1).

It seems that Peter may not have had any specific woman in mind, apart from Sarah, when he wrote, “the holy women of the past who submitted themselves to their husbands.” It seems he may have been writing about godly women in general.

I am amazed there are so many women mentioned in the Bible who took the initiative and acted bravely and independently in what was a very patriarchal society. I am equally amazed there are almost no women mentioned in the Bible who are obvious examples of wifely submission. I guess women who lead nations (Judg. ch. 4–5) and ward off aggressive armies (1 Sam. ch 25), etc, are more interesting than women who lead quiet lives in the home. And so the more interesting women and their stories have made it into the Bible.

Sarah’s Submission

Sarah is the only Bible woman who clearly submitted to her husband’s wishes. It was a great act of submission and courage for Sarah to leave her home and clan, and accompany her husband on a difficult, dangerous journey into the unknown (Gen. 12:1–5).

Furthermore, on two occasions Sarah complied with her husband’s request to deceive a foreign king. (See Genesis 12:10–20 and 20:1–18, esp. Gen 20:13b.) Abraham was worried that the kings would kill him in order to clear the way to his beautiful wife. She must have been a stunner! So Abraham asked Sarah to go along with the ruse that he was her brother and not her husband (Gen. 12:11–13; 20:13b). This was a half-truth as Sarah was Abraham’s half-sister (Gen. 20:12).

Abraham’s motives appear to have been selfish. His main concern was for his own safety. He does not seem to have been concerned about his wife who was taken by foreign kings, twice (Gen. 12:15; 20:2–3). The Bible is clear that on the second occasion Sarah was spared from having sex with the king, but it seems she became the first king’s wife for a short time (Gen. 12:19 cf. 20:4–6).[5]

Sarah did not submit simply because Abraham was her master; she submitted because she wanted to protect her husband. Sarah, however, did not always go along with what Abraham wanted. For instance, Sarah wanted to dismiss Hagar and Ishmael, but this idea distressed Abraham. On this occasion, God said to Abraham (literally): “… in everything, whatever Sarah says to you, listen to her voice …” (Genesis 21:12b, translated from the Septuagint).

The ESV translates the last clause of Genesis 21:12 ESV from the Hebrew as “Whatever Sarah says to you, do as she tells you …”

On a different occasion, recorded in Genesis 16:2, Abraham (literally) obeyed Sarah’s voice. The Greek word hypakouō used in this verse is a common word in the Septuagint (the Greek version of the Old Testament) and the Greek New Testament and is usually translated as “obey.” Conversely, nowhere in the Genesis narratives of Abraham and Sarah does it state that Sarah “obeyed” her husband. “Nevertheless, the submission of Sarah to Abraham was a long-standing element of Jewish traditions.”[6]

Sarah’s Respect

Peter also mentions that Sarah called Abraham “lord.” The Greek word for “lord,” kyrios, is common in the Septuagint and in the New Testament. Kyrios is usually translated into English as “lord,” “master,” or “sir.”[7] Sarah refers to Abraham as kyrios once only in the Septuagint, in Genesis 18:12, but she doesn’t address him directly by that term. Karen Jobes points out that kyrios in this verse is the only lexical connection between the biblical story of Sarah and Peter’s claim.[8]

It is interesting to note that Sarah is laughing when she refers to Abraham as her lord: “Sarah laughed to herself, saying, ‘After I have become old, shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?'” (Gen. 18:12). She does not use the word in an especially reverential fashion. Note also that Rebekah called Abraham’s servant “sir” (kyrios) in Genesis 24:18 (Septuagint), and Mary Magdalene called Jesus “sir” (kyrios) when she mistook him for a gardener in John 20:15. Rebekah and Mary Magdalene were using the word as a term of respect.

As well as being a term of respect, kyrios is also used with affection. In The Testament of Abraham, a work which, like First Peter, probably dates to the end of the first century AD, Sarah calls Abraham “my lord.” This may be the text Peter had in mind when he mentioned Sarah to the wives in Asia Minor. There are two Greek recensions (a long and a short version) of The Testament of Abraham. In the longer version, Sarah addresses Abraham as “my lord” five times, but there is nothing shy or retiring about her speech. Rather, her conversation with Abraham is affectionate (5.31) and candid (6.4, 7, 12, 25), and it indicates that she is a woman with spiritual discernment.[9]

In Western culture, it is odd for a wife to call her husband “lord” or “sir.” Sarah, however, was simply using a term of respect and affection that was appropriate for the culture of that time. The New Testament has clear instructions for husbands and for wives to treat their marriage partners with honour, respect and affection. (See 1 Peter 3:7 and Ephesians 5:33.)

Sarah’s Courage

I suspect that Peter’s use of “the holy women of the past” was to highlight the godliness and faithfulness of women, more so than their submissiveness to husbands. Many Old Testament women showed great faithfulness to God and displayed considerable courage in difficult circumstances.[10] Peter advised the wives in Asia Minor to be gentle and do good and not to be afraid of the intimidation of their non-Christian husbands. (These themes are picked up again in 1 Peter 3:13–17). Peter was asking the wives to be brave and he uses the example of Sarah as encouragement.

Moreover, in Isaiah 51:1–2, Abraham and Sarah are mentioned as the parents of the righteous: “Look to Abraham, your father, and to Sarah who gave birth to you.” And Abraham and Sarah are included, but mentioned individually, in the list of faith heroes in Hebrews 11 (e.g., Heb. 11.11). They are examples and role models for the Jewish people. And Peter uses Sarah as a role model for the Christian wives in Asia Minor who were going through a difficult time.

It seems that Sarah, who like the wives in Asia Minor may not have had much choice in the matter, was courageous and willing to mislead kings, putting her well-being in jeopardy, in order to save her husband’s life.

You have become [Sarah’s] children when you do what is good and do not fear any intimidation (1 Pet. 3:6b CSB).

Sarah did not always comply with her husband’s wishes, however. She used her own wisdom and discernment when deciding whether or not she would do what Abraham wanted. While husbands, as well as wives, should always be seeking to support, help, and accommodate their spouse, they also need to be sensible and wise, and do the right thing. Sometimes doing the good and right thing means not complying with the request of your spouse.

Real Submission

The purpose of this article is not to say that wives do not need to be submissive to their own husbands. In fact, the New Testament indicates that submission, as well as humility and meekness, for example, are Christian virtues for women and for men (Eph. 5:21; 1 Pet. 5:5 NJKV).[11] The purpose of this article is to show that women can have a humble and submissive attitude and use their intelligence, influence, initiative, and individual abilities without artificial limitations. This becomes evident when you use real Bible women as examples of submission, rather than the idealised or overly domesticated versions of womanhood promoted by some churches.

The church’s view of wifely submission has been distorted by a patriarchal mindset, combined with an often limited understanding of the Greek. The Greek word for “submit” (hypotassō) is used in a variety of contexts and with a range of forces in the New Testament and in other Greek texts. It is tragic that the church has taken a more severe view of “submit”(hypotassō) and applied it to the precious and intimate relationship of marriage.

The church has largely expected women to be subordinate to men,[12] rather than seeing men and women as true equals who are to mutually love and care for one another. Moreover, contrary to the examples of godly women in the Bible, the church has tried to limit the parameters and opportunities for women to use their abilities. We must be very careful not to let a narrow, graceless, and faulty concept of submission bind women and limit the use of their talents and skills—talents and skills that God wants to use for his purposes.


[1] Modest dress was considered a social ideal among pagans and Christians alike. I’ve written about Paul’s words on modest dress for women, here. Many women in the Old Testament, such as Sarah, are described primarily as being outwardly beautiful. Conversely, no woman in the New Testament is described as being beautiful. I look at this difference between the testaments, here.

[2] Plutarch, writing roughly around the same time as when 1 Peter was written, noted a common sentiment of the day.

The gods are the first and most important friends. Wherefore it is becoming for a wife to worship and to know only the gods that her husband believes in, and to shut the front door tight upon all queer rituals and outlandish superstitions. For with no god do stealthy and secret rites performed by a woman find any favour. Plutarch, Conjugalia Praecepta (Advice to the Bride and Groom) 19.

The CSB Baker Illustrated Study Bible makes this comment about 1 Peter 3:1–4 and the Christian wives who had changed their religious beliefs.

It was strongly against this [first-century] culture for a wife to change her religion apart from her husband. This helps us to see that Peter is not telling wives to be all-accepting doormats here. They have already stepped out and become different by believing in Christ for themselves. Now they must show that their “rebellion” deepens their love. Peter eloquently teaches that the greatest beauty is that of character and that the loveliness of Christian character speaks far more powerfully than a hundred sermons (3:1–4). (Google Books)

[3] Many Christians (who call themselves “complementarians”) go further than what the Bible says, and they teach that all women should be submissive to all men. (See chapter one of Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, John Piper and Wayne Grudem (eds) (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 2006)

[4] Many Bible women displayed considerable courage as they helped others and were used by God to achieve his purposes. Brave Bible women include Jael (Judg. 4:21; 5:24–27), the woman who killed Abimelech (Judg. 9:53), Rahab (Josh. 2:1–6), Abigail (1 Sam. ch 25), the servant girl who was given a dangerous task (2 Sam. 17:17–18), the woman of Bahurim (2 Sam. 17:19–20), Esther (Esth. 4:11, 16), and Priscilla, who risked her life for Paul’s sake, as did her husband Aquila (Rom. 16:3–5). Other women also showed commendable initiative, shrewdness, and courage; women such as Tamar (Gen. 38:26), Naaman’s wife’s servant (2 Kings 5:3), Ruth (Ruth 1:15–18; 2:2), the Wise Woman of Abel Beth Maacah (2 Sam. 20:15–22), etc. (From The Women who Protected Moses.)

[5] Abraham’s deception had disastrous consequences for the unsuspecting kings (Gen. 12:17; 20:17).  Abraham, on the other hand, did not experience any negative consequences from his deception. He profited from the experiences (Gen. 12:16; 20:14–16).

[6] Karen H. Jobes, 1 Peter (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2005), 205.

[7] The New Living Translation (NLT), Common English Bible (CEB), and a few other English translations have chosen what I think is the most severe of the three options and they translate kyrios as “master” in 1 Peter 3:6. (The NLT is known for the way it emphasises male authority.)
My Spanish-speaking friend Julie Frady suggests that the use of kyrios (“master, lord, sir”) in Koine Greek is similar to the use of señor in Spanish. Julie points out,

We say Señor García as in “Mr” García.
We say Señor for “Lord” when referring to God or Jesus.
We say Señor, meaning “sir,” when addressing any adult male.

[8] Jobes, 1 Peter, 205.

[9] Extract from The Testament of Abraham.

5.31 And Sarah said with weeping, “My Lord Abraham, what is this that you weep?” [To the chief-captain and God’s messenger Michael], “Tell me, my Lord, has this brother that has been entertained by us this day brought you tidings of Lot, your brother’s son, that he is dead? Is it for this that you grieve thus?” The chief-captain answered and said to her, “Nay, my sister Sarah, it is not as you say, but your son Isaac, methinks, beheld a dream, and came to us weeping, and we seeing him were moved in our hearts and wept.”

6. Then Sarah, hearing the excellence of the conversation of the chief-captain, straightway knew that it was an angel of the Lord that spoke. Sarah therefore signified to Abraham to come out towards the door, and said to him, “My Lord Abraham, do you know who this man is?” Abraham said, “I know not.” Sarah said, “You know, my Lord, the three men from heaven that were entertained by us in our tent beside the oak of Mamre, when you killed the kid without blemish, and set a table before them. After the flesh had been eaten, the kid rose again, and sucked its mother with great joy. Do you not know, my Lord Abraham, that by promise they gave to us Isaac as the fruit of the womb? Of these three holy men this is one.”

Abraham said, “O Sarah, in this you speak the truth. Glory and praise from our God and the Father. For late in the evening when I washed his feet in the basin I said in my heart, ‘These are the feet of one of the three men that I washed then'”; and his tears that fell into the basin then became precious stones. And shaking them out from his lap he gave them to Sarah, saying, “If you believe me not, look now at these.” And Sarah receiving them bowed down and saluted and said, “Glory be to God that shows us wonderful things. And now know, my Lord Abraham, that there is among us the revelation of something, whether it be evil or good!”
Testament of Abraham, Version 1. 5:31–6:25. Translated by W.A. Craigie. From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 9. Edited by Allan Menzies (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1896) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/1007.htm>.

As in Genesis, there’s no obvious or especially significant occasion in the Testament of Abraham where Sarah obeys Abraham (cf. 1 Pet. 3:5–6a). However, there is an incident narrated in version 2, paragraph 4, where she does what Abraham says. In this passage, Sarah is indoors in her own “house” and she hears Abraham, Isaac, and Michael weeping. She goes outside to find out what’s wrong. Michael has just told Abraham that he is going to die, but Abraham tells Sarah that nothing’s wrong. He then says, “Go into your house, and do your own work, lest we be troublesome to the man [Michael].” We are told, “And Sarah went away, being about to prepare the supper.” This is hardly a noteworthy example of wifely obedience. Is this what Peter was referring to in 1 Peter 3:6?

Sandra Glahn has an informative article about this passage and Sarah in 1 Peter 3:5–6 here.

[10] Life was difficult for the recipients of Peter’s letter, and persecution and patriarchy is the context of Peter’s instructions to wives. The Christians in Asia Minor were being slandered and persecuted and they were fearful. It would have been especially difficult for Christian wives with unsaved husbands. Most of these women had no real alternative but to submit to their husbands, even when it jeopardised their safety. Peter gives them the hope, however, that their virtuous living may win their husbands for Jesus Christ. In contemporary, Western society, women have more freedoms and options. Secular society does not expect wives to put up with foolishness or abuse from their husbands, and neither should the church. Jesus came to bring freedom to those who are captive. This should be the church’s mission too.

[11] The ideal Christian marriage relationship is one of mutual and reciprocal submission (i.e. loyalty, cooperation, deference and respect) between husband and wife (Eph. 5:21; 1 Pet. 3:8). I define Christian submission as humble, loyal, and loving deference.

[12] Many churches associate wifely submission with wives being assistants and even servants to their husbands, and not vice versa. Yet both men and women, husbands and wives, are called to follow Jesus’ example of sacrificial and loving service.

© Margaret Mowczko 2011
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Image Credit

Photo of couple by Priscilla du Preez via Unsplash.

Postscript: February 15, 2021

Dr Jeannine K. Brown has drawn up this comparison of Peter’s words in 1 Peter 3:1-6 to wives with unsaved husbands with his words to all believers in 1 Peter 3:14–16. It’s taken from Brown’s paper, “Silent Wives, Verbal Believers: Ethical and Hermeneutical Considerations in 1 Peter 3:1–6 and Its Context,” Word & World 24.4 (Fall 2004): 395–403, 397.

1 Peter 3:1-6 wives compared with 1 peter 3:14-16

Postscript: April 9, 2021

Eugene Boring gives these wise words in his commentary on 1 Peter. The last sentence is especially pertinent.

It is important to interpret 1 Peter in general and 2:11–3:12 in particular as a letter. The text before us is not a programmatic essay on “the state,” “slavery,” or “the role of women.” We have before us a letter instructing Christians in a particular situation on how they should (in the author’s view) fulfil their Christian calling within the structures of society assumed to be given. While the structures are not challenged, neither are they justified, and unjust suffering can happen within them. The question addressed in 1 Peter is not whether the Roman Empire, the institution of slavery, or the patriarchal family should exist, but how Christians in Asia Minor at the end of the first Christian century should live out their faith within these given social structures.
M. Eugene Boring, 1 Peter (Abingdon New Testament Commentaries; Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2011), 104–105. (Google Books)

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(2) Submission and Respect from Husbands in 1 Peter 3:7–8
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39 thoughts on “Submission and Respect from Wives in 1 Peter 3:1-6

  1. THANK YOU for thinking through this passage and sharing your discoveries. Too often I skim over vague phrases (“holy women of the past” is one!) without stopping to work out what they actually mean, and it was so interesting to slow down and reflect on this one.

    Also, I really appreciate your final thoughts on submission – looking at the definitions was a helpful glimpse of what’s wrong with some teaching on submission (‘subordinate’), and also what submission might actually mean for day-to-day life (‘cooperate’). It seems many women are taught they need to submit to their husbands but aren’t sure HOW they should be doing that; mutual cooperation makes practical sense. (I hope this makes sense, my brain isn’t functioning well this morning!)

  2. Thanks Belle, I wasn’t sure whether this article would be of interest to anyone. I’m glad you found it worthwhile.

    I really do think that much of the church has got a warped idea of submission. 🙁

    I am writing a follow up article called Submission and Respect in 1 Peter 3:7. It’s about New Testament instructions to men to be submissive and respectful. I imagine that it will be ready to post within a fortnight or so; so stay tuned. 🙂

  3. Marg, I always love your articles! I have for the longest time felt this way about Sarah. But your research and clear communication brings it all into crystal clear focus. Thank you!

  4. Thanks Becky.

    BTW, I really liked your most recent article.

  5. What about Titus 2 this seems very clearly directed toward wives that among other things they obey their own husbands
    Titus 2:4-5 KJV

    That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.

    1. It needs to be remembered – submission (whatever the original word meant) should NEVER involve compromise of one’s faith in Christ and submission to Him as one’s Lord. The requirement to be obedient to one’s husband is NULL AND VOID in the instance that he requires ANYTHING that cuts across one’s faith in Christ (and that can be many subtle things also). I feel many men think that the woman is theirs to command, and forget she is only ever required to enthrone one man in her heart as Lord – Jesus Christ. And as per Peter, her submission is very much a subset within the submission of all body members to one another (which is the verse before it) and ‘likewise, wives, submit to your own husbands’ actually reads ‘likewise (as in, like every believer submits to one another as per immediately previous verse) wives to husbands.” no special submit word. It is inferred from the verse before it. That blasts any concept that her submission to him is somehow greater than it is to ANY other body member. I sometimes wonder if the people who INSIST that all wives should be manifesting an obedience that is unquestioning and unthinking and with no checks and balances happen to have a marriage that their husband actually is, regardless of what their church teaches, christ-like, respectful and even submissive and appreciative towards her. Because until someone has had to live within a marriage that DOES NOT have a husband who treats the wife as if she has equal worth and say in God’s sight, they have not had to learn the hard lesson: Follow Jesus First, Husband second. Do I advocate rebellion? No. But that sort of submission killed my marriage. If I had stood and spoken early on, things would be different now. Also, like always, Jesus comes up against EVERY system of men, including the greco-roman patriarchal structures of paul’s day, which are still promoted by many churches as being the ideal, even though the gospel really tipped them upside down and emptied them of their power over women. I would need to look up the word ‘obedient in that verse, but I am sure Margo has already done something on that, if we look. and much better than I could. But I just think that we can get dogmatic over wives obeying husbands and then it can become a situation where an completely ungodly and unhealthy balance of power allows subtle forms of ruling over to occur, whereas as Jesus showed us, true leaders empower others, and a man who is truly leading will be UNAFRAID to empower his wife to speak directly and honestly and even to challenge him if she thinks he is diverging from love for God and others. But you find out how Christ-like a man/leadership is when you question the narrative – in the home or in the church group.

  6. Hi Rachel, The Greek word for “obey” does not appear in any Greek text of Titus 2:4-5. The Greek word used here actually means “be submissive.”

    Paul wanted the Cretan wives to behave in ways that did not bring disrepute to Christianity. But he did not use the word “obey.” In fact, no Bible author directly instructs women to “obey” their husbands.

    Please don’t mistake me, I believe in submission! I believe submission, as in humility and cooperation, should be characteristics of our relationships.

    I believe I am very submissive towards my husband, and he towards me.

    I have written more about Titus 2:4-5 here: https://margmowczko.com/category/titus-2/

  7. I’ve never received a blessing quite like that. It is very much appreciated. I’m looking forward to reading your blog post.

    You might want to have a look here. It has some additional information in the first few chapters.

  8. Thank you very much for posting this out in the web for all to read! I am putting a link to this web page, on my next blog post.

    May the God of Issac, Abraham, and Jacob, bless you and yours greatly!

  9. Hi, I am sooo thankful to have found you. I feel I am spiritually abused by my husband on a daily basis by him telling me the that reason our marriage doesn’t work is because I don’t “submit” to him. I have tried and tried to tell him that when I read about “submission” in the Bible, I am being taught something opposite to what he tries to cram down my throat.

    I read that we are to love, respect, and submit to each other (which to me is common sense unless you want a hostile living environment.)

    I have actually read a lot of the Bible and I try to tell my husband how I feel on this subject; but no matter what I say to him, he says he is right and that “God doesn’t lie” and that when “I” realize this, we will have a happy marriage. I have pondered this viewpoint to the point of extreme of anxiety and have never felt comfortable about it in the least bit.

    I don’t think we will ever get along, and I am at the point where I want to leave him because his chauvinistic attitude and unrealistic belief is a complete turn-off.

    I am just me. I try to get along with everyone and I believe in mutual respect for all. Period.

    Thanks for listening,


  10. Hi Judy,

    I cannot imagine the stress and unhappiness you seem to be living with.

    I just don’t understand how Christian husbands can truly believe it is acceptable, and even God’s will, that they get to have everything their way and the wife just has to put up with it. Where is the sacrificial love (that Paul speaks about) or the honour (that Peter speaks about) in that? I agree with you: mutual love, respect and submission is common sense if you want a healthy marriage.

    It sounds very unfair (and simplistic) that he blames you for the state of your marriage. I am so sorry for your situation.


  11. Marg,

    Thank you for responding as I do live a miserable and very lonely existence. I am isolated in the country and don’t have friends because none of the people I enjoy are acceptable to him. We have been married 4 &1/2 years now and haven’t been intimate for 2&1/2 of them; he say’s because of the way I act, he physically can’t. I am not perfect by any means but I really didn’t think I was THAT bad. I feel like less of a woman because of this.

    Before I met him I had a group of people that I went bike riding with on a consistent basis, which to me was the most fun I’d ever had until he told me that if, while I’m riding, I don’t stop for a stop sign, then I’m not obeying Man’s Law, and God tells us if you disobey Man’s Law, ultimately you’re sinning against God. At first, I listened and abided by what my husband told me but after a while I saw what he told me as wrong and we got/are into many arguments about a lot of his beliefs and how I was/am messing things up in our lives.

    We argue so much that I can’t even stand to be around him anymore. In fact, I hate him. Now that, I know, is against God.

    I have mentioned separation to my husband and his response is “Let no man separate what God has brought together”. Separation is a Sin and I would not be following God’s will if I left; therefore, I would not be able to receive God’s Blessings in my life. I don’t know what to do. I have been oppressed for so long now, I don’t know if I have the strength TO leave.

    I have told him that I don’t feel his way about what God say’s and his response is, “then you serve a different God than I do”.

    Marg, It is so hard for me to decipher what’s right. I asked for God’s approval before I married this man so I wonder if I should listen to my husband on these matters; even if I don’t feel right about them. Is something wrong with me? I wonder.

    Thanks for listening,


  12. Speaking generally, it seems to me that some people get so caught up in a few rules but forget the most important law of all: that we love God and we love each another. Some people try to please God by being strictly obedient to some laws when what God really wants is kindness and fairness. The point of any instruction or law from God is justice, mercy and compassion (Zech 7:9-10; Mat 23:23; Rom 13:9-10). God’s laws are not intended to cause misery.

    Judy, I can hear your confusion about trying to work out what the right thing is. And it sounds as though both of you are miserable. I urge you to get professional help from a counsellor.

    Perhaps there is a book here that can help. https://margmowczko.com/egalitarian-books-on-marriage/

  13. Powerful reminder for us all, Marg, that we need to ask questions of the Bible, rather than treat it superficially. It’s as we ask the questions and look for what was really meant by what was said, that we so often, as you have here, come up with God’s will for women.

    I am also struck by the point you made in the footnotes, that women in OT were often described as beautiful, but no woman in the NT is described as such. That makes a very clear division between patriarchal society and the New Covenant that Jesus brought with HIs atoning death. His intention was/is to do away with patriarchy and ensure the equality of genders.

    Thanks again. Always a pleasure to read your findings.

  14. “In The Testament of Abraham, a work which, like First Peter, probably dates to the end of first century AD, Sarah calls Abraham “my lord”. This is most likely the text that Peter had in mind when he mentions Sarah to the wives in Asia Minor.”

    In the beginning of the Testament of Abraham, there is a brief introduction where Abraham is described as having “lived in quietness, gentleness, and righteousness”. Now compare that to the instructions in 1 Peter 3: 4 where Peter tells the wives to have a “gentle and quiet spirit” while advising them to show good conduct. Sounds pretty similar, huh? Possible evidence that Peter was referring to the Testament of Abraham with it being implied that “Sarah obeyed Abraham calling him lord” by living in the same way. Just a thought.

    1. It is interesting that Abraham is described as having “lived all the years of his life in quietness and gentleness …” Abraham is also described as being hospitable, something that comes up later, albeit briefly, in 1 Peter.

      The Testament of Abraham and 1 Peter were probably written around the same time, and the author of 1 Peter seems to have been familiar with the text or familiar with some of the (oral?) traditions it records.

      I’ve written about a “gentle and quiet spirit” here: https://margmowczko.com/gentle-quiet-spirit-1-peter-3/

  15. I think that Peter is trying to connect the description of Abraham in the Testament of Abraham with Gen. 18: 6-12 because he is described as “righteous” or “hospitable” in the former while Sarah is shown in the later as “obeying” Abraham’s request to give hospitality to the men as well as calling him “lord”. And both the Testament of Abraham and Gen. show that Abraham struggles with his faith at times in that he resists at some points what the angels are telling him while Sarah is shown as given insights in both situations or Abraham listens to her. Just a thought.

    1. 🙂 The Testament of Abraham may well contain many ideas that were widely accepted by first century Jews.

      It’s so useful to read the ancient Jewish writings. They can help us understand some of the thinking of New Testament authors.

  16. Wow, the military and non-military use makes sense!!! I’ve always tried to explain how Biblical submission is not the same as being a doormat but I couldn’t elaborate. My husband’s main complaints are about not going along with his ideas or being quarrelsome- basically, when I’m uncooperative for no good reason. Fits with Proverbs 21:9.

    1. I also have struggled in my marriage – especially the sense from husband (with sense that he is empowered by male leaders in the thought) that it is all my fault because I am not submissive. At some point we were on holidays and I asked the Lord about a similar verse about the ‘contentious woman’ and basically said “Lord, this seems pretty rough on us women. Like we are set up and can’t ever get a fair hearing when we have a valid point. But I know you are good so….please explain.” (something like that. ) Went to bed. My head hit the pillow and I got a ‘download’, which I had to get up and research because it blew my brain!
      Few points:
      1) contention is not always a bad thing. Timothy was told to ‘contend earnestly for the faith’. … How many wives in being contentious are actually contending for a true lived expression of faith and love in the home by the husband? Just coz someone is contentious does NOT mean they are wrong or should be silent.
      2) The actual verse I was looking at was Proverbs 27v15
      A nagging wife is like the dripping
      of a leaky roof in a rainstorm.
      16 Stopping her is like trying to stop the wind.
      It’s like trying to grab olive oil with your hand.
      questions: she is like a dripping roof. (in middle eastern culture, often an earthen roof) What does a dripping roof tell a man? YOU HAVE BEEN LAZY. YOU HAVE A JOB TO DO. GET UP AND FIX THAT ROOF before the whole soggy mess collapses on your wife and kids. Your lack is endangering your whole family. So… she is a reminder of what he SHOULD be doing! Boom! that thought blew me away. See, men preach on this like ‘poor bloke. come with me to the cafe to get away from your horrible nagging wife’ where a wise man would say: you, man, go and FIX the problem. It is YOUR problem. She can’t fix the roof by herself. You need to talk with her and find ways to fix it. But ignoring her will bring destruction on you all.
      3) Wind in the scriptures is usually an analogy for HOLY SPIRIT. So her nagging is being compared to the wind of the Spirit – it is God trying to blow away the cobwebs in his mind!
      4) Oil in the scriptures also speaks of Holy Spirit. Once again, he SHOULD BE LISTENING to her actual complaint, instead of going and getting sympathy from patriarchal structures! She is being an EZER, and he is ignoring her. Also, I found a comment that mentioned the word ‘bewrayeth’ in connection with holding the oil in his hand. They made the connection that whatever oil/ointment he is anointing her with, the stench or fragrance of it will stick to her and his hand, and eventually, even inadvertently (hence use of bewrayeth) even the best wife who tries desperately to honour and respect a husband who is being overbearing or just plain childish, will eventually end up showing to the world that he is anointing her with a stench. and the stench will cling to him also, just like he had stepped in some doggie do and wiped it on her. He can blame her as much as he likes, but the stink is on HIS boot!
      4) Context is king. Who was proverbs originally written to? The young man. Why? So he could have wisdom and prosper in ALL things (including his marriage. Sooo, seen in the light of instruction to a young man, once again, this verse is saying: both the dripping roof and the nagging wife mean HE HAS NOT BEEN DOING HIS JOB and will soon reap even greater destruction if he continues to ignore either ‘problem’. The Onus is being put on HIM to do due diligence and wisdom and FIX the problem. All of those were bombshells to my previous understandings of this scripture! and all of them set me free – this verse is written by God who LOVES women, and will not condone a man being lazy or neglectful in his relationship to her!
      5) so then I looked up some other ‘contentious wife’ proverbs, like 21:9 you mentioned. I believe the house here is a ‘wide house’ (think mansion). (My research was years ago). Maybe a paraphrase will say more than many words: Better to dwell in a corner of your father’s house rooftop (which was not uncommon in those days for poor people) than to work your butt off, ignore your wife for years and then wonder why she is contentious and not happy in the mansion you are still slaving away to pay all the debts on! Once again – the contentious wife may be saying these truths: “There are more important things than money. I don’t care what status we have in the community – the kids and I just NEED you to pray with us regularly. You’ve always got time for your bankers and lawyers and builders – what about the wife God gave you? Have you got time for her? ” So boom, boom, boom. The contentious wife is actually trying to HELP her husband be GODLY and he is not listening. Bet I’ll never hear any of this in a sermon about the contentious wife from any male mouth! But it so AFFIRMED me that the Lord has put those verses there because he LOVES us women, and sees the impossible situations we sometimes have to put up with as wives. And gave specific instruction to young men to not be lazy, neglectful of his relationship with wife, or so distracted by business and desire for riches that he does not pay attention to the real gift God has given him – a wife who will call him out when he is being stupid! Don’t know if all that helps, but it did me – those verses are written out of God’s love. and seem to affirm there are times to be contentious: “Hubby, you don’t fix this, you have big problem. Kids could die. Lose big money. Get off butt and do what you need to!” She may be abrupt due the dire necessity, but the motivation is love and care and concern. But then again – my marriage is very dire at present – total lack of relationship from him because I want unscripted face to face as equals conversations, not ones that say the phrases and agree to the modus operandiis of the leadership. So maybe you should not listen to me. Then again, in the past ten years, God has moved me from being a completely almost empty, silent shell of a person to someone who I feel like I have substance, I am able to speak up if I need to and in general I am finding more joy and identity in Christ each month, despite the marriage difficultes. You cannot judge a man/woman on the state of their marriage. Hosea kept loving his prostitute wife (not his fault she was unfaithful). Abigail had to sneak out, at night, taking a wealth of provisions, to meet a group of men and David to stop them killing her husband. So much for submission and always asking permission! Sometimes you gotta do what you gotta do to save the family! Her foolish husband was feasting and drinking while an army was coming to destroy him!!! Unconventional? Yes, she was. Commended by God? Yes, she was. So keep turning to Jesus and just seek to follow him regardless of where husband is at. Watershed moment for me: realising that when I stand before God, there will be NO blaming of my husband for ANY of my sins, lacks or disobediences. So therefore I am just to follow Christ, every day, whether he does or not. However, I would say – if the abuse is severe, get out. You also have a responsibility to be ‘ready for every good work.’ that does not include staying with someone who is destroying you or your children. I could not ever recommend remarriage, but Christ has come to deliver the oppressed. If you are truly being greatly oppressed in your marriage, get out. If he’s in any way decent, it may be the wake up call he needs. To realise that his wife cannot bear to live with him anymore! But many of us just follow Jesus and walk the cross in our very imperfect marriages. Finding our identity and acceptance in his love, who will never leave us nor forsake us. And finding that He is a husband to us, and His love will make up much of the lack that the man you are married to is meant to fulfil. eyes off husband, eyes on Jesus. worry less about what I think husband should be doing, and more about building my own house on the rock by making sure I myself am doing what Jesus said. Oh – even bigger lesson: just ask God what a scripture means. I was astounded how almost immediately I was given God’s perspective on a verse that is used to denigrate many women, and found that was never God’s intention! So, go the questions for our dear heavenly Abba!

  17. Regarding 1 Peter 3:1-6
    There is nothing “Good Looking” about God demanding abused Christian wives and abused children to stay with non believing abusive husbands and abusive fathers. What if the abused Christian wife was pregnant when her husband beat her? What if she already had children? What if the husband beat the children in front of the mother? What if he threatened to kill their children if she didn’t deny Jesus Christ? What if the husband used that part in the Bible to abuse his wife or children even more knowing they couldn’t escape? What if the husband beat her and their children to death? Would that make Christianity look even better? You know that all these New Testament Instructions apply today. Jesus Christ came to fulfill the Law. https://biblehub.com/matthew/5-17.htm Not do away with it. Jesus Christ is always the same. https://biblehub.com/hebrews/13-8.htm God doesn’t change His mind. https://biblehub.com/1_samuel/15-29.htm You do realize that if the Law made it illegal for a wife to leave an abusive husband then she would have to stay with him and put up with his abuse again. https://biblehub.com/1_peter/2-13.htm Even you would have to. I would have to. The children would have to. Our husbands would be allowed to beat, rape, starve us, thirst us, and even kill us. He even could abuse our children again. We could do nothing but take it and hope our husbands wouldn’t kill us or our children. Remember Judges 11 where Jephthah killed his daughter for God? A man’s vow to God is more important than a girl’s life. Our husbands would have the right to kill us too if we greeted him first. Yet they could cancel our vows. Numbers 30. Or flog us if we chose to keep our vows. Deuteronomy 25:2,3. Adultery is worse when a woman commits it. The “Law of Jealousy” is for the husband to test his wife only. We couldn’t have him tested if we were jealous. Numbers 5:11-31 Remember that we would have had to marry our rapist and could never leave him. Deuteronomy 22:28,29 It’s easy for women to be Christians these days. Now women can cherry pick the Bible to fit their modern comforts. I encourage all Christian women to imagine how it would be for them if the laws changed back to the way it was when this passage was written. I encourage all Christian women to imagine being the women who got raped and forced to live with their rapist until either of them died. I encourage all Christian women to put themselves in Jephthah’s daughter’s dilemma. I encourage all Christian women to imagine being terrified of their husbands and their children’s fathers coming home. To imagine their daughters having to suffer like this. Imagine the laws went backwards. Then your daughters coming to see you with her black swollen eyes, stitches, and shaken bodies of hunger, thirst, and sleep deprivation. Her tears. Her shaking malnourished abused children not knowing if they will be allowed to live into adulthood. Then sent back to their husband and their children’s father. A real loving God would shield and protect such children and women. Not enjoy our suffering and deaths. Not send us to Hell for eternity for the sin of denying him and bailing to save ourselves and our children. Matthew 10:33, Matthew 24:13.

    1. Hi Riki,

      “You know that all these New Testament Instructions apply today.” I disagree. Many of Peter’s and Paul’s instructions were written with specific situations and specific churches in a specific era in mind.

      I also disagree with several of your interpretations of the Bible verses you’ve referenced, but I’ll mention only one. The rapist is obligated to marry and stay with the woman he has raped. The woman is under no such obligation. She does not have to marry him if she and her family choose not to. And she can leave him at any time. It is the rapist who is bound by the law, not the woman. And this law given to bronze-age Israel; for several reasons, it has no bearing today in modern society. I’ve written about this law here: https://margmowczko.com/deuteronomy-22-marrying-your-rapist/

      Neither God, Jesus, or Paul demand that abused Christian wives and abused children stay with non-believing or abusive husbands or abusive fathers. They say nothing like this. Peter’s words were written when the Christians, including Christian wives, were going through a very difficult period. See footnote 9. Thankfully, we live in a different time and have a different culture. And what Peter says to husbands about wives is extraordinary: https://margmowczko.com/submission-respect-1-peter-3_7-8/

      I have several articles on what God, Jesus, and Paul say about divorce here: https://margmowczko.com/tag/divorce/

      God’s laws in the Hebrew Bible were written to protect the weaker members of society in ancient Israel when life was much tougher than today. They regulate against the worst excesses of abuse. His laws were not designed to exploit women and children. God repeatedly expresses his concern for the vulnerable and that the Israelites treat people with justice. Furthermore, when we implement any New Testament verse, it must be done with common sense and kindness.

      I’ve written a few articles about hell. Here’s the first one here: https://margmowczko.com/paul-james-jesus-hell-gehenna/

      God is love. Tragically, many people who profess to be Christians don’t seem to realise this or follow his example.

  18. Thank you for all your research. Finding words and biblical backup for what one knows in one’s heart but our western/greco-Roman culture wars against – the full equality of men and women – is just wonderful.
    At some point I was reading around the verses in Peter, and it seemed that the Lord opened my eyes with this question: WHO was it that one of these wives would most likely to be terrified of? These were potentially quite young wives compared to older, influential husbands, as that was common for the day, especially among the rich (the only ones who had leisure time to braid hair and have lots of expensive clothing). WHO was it that they would be most fearful of? WHO had the power to make their lives a misery if they ‘did good’ – when doing good is any expression of their faith in Christ? The WHO they would be most likely to be afraid of would be their HUSBAND, who could pretty much divorce/toss them out onto the street for ‘doing good’ by eg: not bowing down to the family idols which he led the household in worship of. So, if these wives were called to ‘DO GOOD AND NOT BE AFRAID WITH ANY TERROR’ (of their husbands) that casts them in an entirely different light than the meek, always obedient, subservient role model that is held up in many sermons (mostly male sermons!). Because of their faith in Christ, they may actually HAVE TO CHOOSE TO DISOBEY their husband, who quite likely would be exceedingly wrathful at this blow to his pride and reputation. Makes quite a case for the wife being called to live in peace with her husband as much and as often as possible, but NOT TO SHRINK BACK from respectfully disobeying him or confronting aberrant behaviour (eg think domestic violence to self, children or even slaves). And then she is set free (within her heart) as one who follows Jesus, not the idols of her husband or family.
    The other thing I have realised is how many times I have heard a woman ought to submit – countless – but in 30 years I have only heard 2-3 messages on the importance of a man LOVING his wife – one was a testimony of a newly believing husband, and another was a wedding exhortation. surely that imbalance itself demands our attention that something is not as it should be!

    1. Hi friend, The heavy emphasis on wifely submission is totally out of balance with general exhortations from Jesus, Peter, and Paul for believers to love and serve one another.

      Also, in the 10 years I’ve been blogging on the topic of men and women in Christ, I’ve had countless women (and a few men) write to me with questions about wifely submission, but I’ve only ever had one person write to me with questions about mutual submission (Eph. 5:21ff). True story.

      And yes, the Christian wives in Asia Minor were in danger of bad treatment from their non-Christian husbands.

  19. love this article. but in what way did peter know of the history of the bible such as sarah’s story and the “women of the past” what books or other informational sources did he have available to him at that time in order to be aware of old testament events? thanks for answering

    1. Hi Susan, Peter probably had very few, if any, scrolls available to him on a regular basis. First-century Israel was an oral/aural culture, not a literary culture. Scrolls were hugely expensive. (Books came later.)

      Some larger synagogues may have had many scrolls of Old Testament books written in Hebrew and/or Greek, but smaller synagogues may only have had copies of the first five books of the Bible and perhaps some Psalms and Isaiah, if that.

      Most people relied on memory rather than scrolls.

      At the very least, Peter would have heard the scrolls of the Old Testament and some other Jewish writings being recited and read in the synagogues every Sabbath. And we can imagine that Jesus taught the scriptures.

      It is evident that all the writers of New Testament books know the Old Testament “books” which would later be compiled in the Bible. It seems Peter is acquainted with the Testament of Abraham which may have been popular in the first century.

      Abraham and Sarah were hugely popular figures for the first Jewish people. I have no doubt Peter knew about them and other figures, including women. Sarah is also mentioned by Paul (Rom. 4:19; 9:9; Gal. 4:21) and the writer of Hebrews (Heb. 11:11).

      Abraham and Sarah are the “parents” of the Jewish nation.

      “Listen to me, you who pursue righteousness
      and who seek the Lord:
      Look to the rock from which you were cut
      and to the quarry from which you were hewn;
      Look to Abraham, your father,
      and to Sarah, who gave you birth.
      When I called him he was only one man,
      and I blessed him and made him many.
      The Lord will surely comfort Zion … Isaiah 51:1-2 NIV

  20. Thank you for this article, Marg. I so appreciate your insights!

    I’m a missionary in Albania and a chaplain/coach to missionaries in several other countries. My eyes were opened to the inherent difficulties that arise in translating between two unrelated languages when I realized the differences in the English and Albanian Bible translations. The Albanian language has much fewer words and many words have several meanings, so context is everything! Also, Albanians often speak in idioms that require cultural context.

    As another point of interest, the Albanian word for “lord” has several other meanings as well. Zotëri means lord, but also means sir, mister, gentleman, master, and several other things, including man.

    The related word zot means god, master, ruler, lord, sir. The words zoti means mister, male business owner, or sir.

    The word for man is usually translated as burrë, but burrë can also mean husband, male, mister, lord, male friend (mate), masculine.

    Obviously, without significant cultural context, translations from Albanian into English can easily go in the wrong direction. Why shouldn’t we expect that to be even more true of relatively modern translations of writing from ancient cultures?

    1. Thanks for this, Bren. I appreciate this.

      Many people seem to believe that translating from one language into another is plain and simple, but it really isn’t. Translating can be difficult and usually involves compromise.

  21. Putting this here so I can read it later.




  22. Hi Marg,

    I love reading your articles. They have really helped me. I just saw a post by a prominent woman who “teaches” the younger women on social media. She said that we are to emulate Sarah because of the verse in Peter. She then went on to agree with a man who posted “Your husband is your earthly Lord.”
    Are we to emulate Sarah? I pointed out to her that she wasn’t a very good example of submission but she didn’t respond.

    1. Hello Hannah, The author of 1 Peter thought it was a good thing that Sarah obeyed her husband and that she referred to him as kyrios, a term of respect. But there is no way Peter was thinking that a husband is a wife’s earthly Lord. Yikes!

      Did you see my comments about Rebekah and Mary M. in the article? And did you see my postscript where Sarah calls Abraham kyrios? I don’t think Peter had the Bible stories of Sarah in mind, but later Jewish stories. Nothing in Genesis clearly says that Sarah obeyed Abraham.

      Interestingly, even though he does give Sarah as an example, Peter doesn’t directly tell the wives of Asia Minor to obey their husbands or to call them kyrios.

      What he does say directly to the wives in regards to Sarah is, “You have become her children when you do what is good and do not fear any intimidation” (1 Peter 3:6 CSB). The NLT captures a sense that I think is correct in this particular verse: “You are her daughters when you do what is right without fear of what your husbands might do.”

      We need to read 1 Peter 3:1-6 with the understanding that these husbands were mostly unsaved and could be scary because their wives were following Jesus and not their preferred gods. These Christian wives were not being totally compliant towards their unsaved husbands.

      Peter isn’t talking about Christian marriage in 1 Peter 3:1-6. There is no place whatsoever for fear and intimidation in Christian marriage.
      More on this here: https://margmowczko.com/fear-or-respect-in-christian-marriage-ephesians-533/

  23. […] According to the Megillah (one of the tractates of the Talmud), seven prophetesses prophesied to Israel. These seven women are Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, Huldah, and Esther. (See Megillah 14a.13 and 14b.) These, and still more Bible women, had prophetic insight with some receiving divine messages from God or his angel (e.g., Rebekah, Gen. 25:21-23; Rahab, Josh. 2:9-11; Samson’s mother, Judg. 13:1-23). […]

  24. […] According to the Megillah (one of the tractates of the Talmud), seven prophetesses prophesied to Israel: Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, Huldah, and Esther. (See Megillah 14a.13 and 14b.) These, and still more Bible women, had prophetic insight with some clearly receiving divine messages from God or his angel (e.g., Rebekah: Gen. 25:21-23; Rahab: Josh. 2:9-11; Samson’s mother: Judg. 13:1-23). […]

  25. […] Kyria does not only occur in ancient letters. I’ve come across the word in early Jewish and Christian literature where it is sometimes used for real family members rather than spiritual mothers. It is used in direct address by Isaac to his mother Sarah in The Testament of Abraham (3.10 recension A) (circa 100 CE), and by Perpetua’s brother and father to their sister and daughter, respectively, in the account of Perpetua’s martyrdom (para. 3 & 4) (202 or 203 CE). […]

  26. […] (1) Submission and Respect in 1 Peter 3:1-6 […]

  27. […] Submission and Respect from Wives (1 Peter 3:1–6) […]

  28. […] In the Testament of Abraham, a Jewish work written at roughly the same time 1 Peter was written, Abraham is described as having lived all the years of his life “in quietness (en hēsychia) and gentleness/ meekness” (praotēs-πρᾳότης) and justness/ righteousness.” There are a few clues that indicate the author of 1 Peter was either familiar with Test Abr or that he was familiar with some traditions that are recorded in Test Abr but not the text itself. […]

  29. […] Submission and Respect from Wives in (1 Peter 3:1–6) […]

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