Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism

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Women in Ministry, Keener, Witherington


Some Christians think that only people who have a “loose approach to scripture,” or who reject its authority, can believe that women should be leaders and teachers in the church. I doubt any evangelical Christian would regard these scholars and theologians as having a loose approach to scripture, yet each of them believes that appropriately gifted women can and should be leaders and teachers in the church. Here is a sample of various statements made by these prominent scholars some of whom are now deceased.*

F.F. Bruce (1910–1990)

F.F. Bruce was the Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis at the University of Manchester and belonged to the Open Brethren.

An appeal to first principles in our application of the New Testament might demand the recognition that when the Spirit, in his sovereign good pleasure, bestows varying gifts on individual believers, these gifts are intended to be exercised for the well-being of the whole church. If he manifestly withheld the gifts of teaching or leadership from Christian women, then we should accept that as evidence of his will (1 Cor. 12:11). But experience shows that he bestows these and other gifts, with ‘undistinguishing regard’, on men and women alike―not on all women, of course, nor yet on all men. That being so, it is unsatisfactory to rest with a halfway house in this issue of women’s ministry, where they are allowed to pray and prophesy, but not to teach or lead.
Bruce, “Women in the Church: A Biblical Survey,” Christian Brethren Review 33 (1982), 7–14, 11–12. (Source) 

F. F. Bruce is a signatory to Christians for Biblical Equality’s statement, “Men, Women, and Biblical Equality.”

Gordon D. Fee (1934–2022)

Professor Emeritus of New Testament at Regent College, ordained in the Assemblies of God.

It seems a sad commentary on the church and on its understanding of the Holy Spirit that “official” leadership and ministry is allowed to come from only one half of the community of faith. The New Testament evidence is that the Holy Spirit is gender inclusive, gifting both men and women, and thus potentially setting the whole body free for all the parts to minister and in various ways to give leadership to the others. Thus my issue in the end is not a feminist agenda—an advocacy of women in ministry. Rather, it is a Spirit agenda, a plea for the releasing of the Spirit from our strictures and structures so that the church might minister to itself and to the world more effectively.
Fee, “The Priority of Spirit Gifting for Church Ministry,” Discovering Biblical Equality Complementarity without Hierarchy. Ronald W. Pierce, Rebecca Merrill Groothuis, Gordon D. Fee (eds) (Leicester: IVP Academic, 2005), 254.

Gordon D. Fee endorsed the organisation Christians for Biblical Equality. See here.

Craig S. Keener (b. 1960)

President and program chair of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) in 2020, professor of New Testament at Asbury Theological Seminary, ordained in the National Baptist Convention.

Pentecostals and charismatics affirm that the minister’s authority is inherent in the minister’s calling and ministry of the Word, not the minister’s person. In this case, gender should be irrelevant as a consideration for ministry–for us as it was for Paul. … Today we should affirm those whom God calls, whether male or female, and encourage them in faithfully learning God’s Word. We need to affirm all potential laborers, both men and women, for the abundant harvest fields.
Keener, “Was Paul For or Against Women in Ministry?” Enrichment Journal (Spring 2001). (Source)

Craig Keener has endorsed Christians for Biblical Equality. See here.

I. Howard Marshall (1934–2015)

Professor of New Testament Exegesis at the University of Aberdeen, belonged to the Evangelical Methodist Church.

Much anguish is felt by women whose God-given talents have been denied expression. This is due to the inability of complementarians to provide any coherent and persuasive reasons for denying women these [ministry] positions in church—women are asked to accept a scriptural command simply because it is God’s will even if they cannot understand why it is so. … [Anguish is also caused by] the arbitrariness of the way in which the ruling is put into effect, with all the going beyond what Scripture actually says and the casuistry that is employed regarding the limits of what women may and may not do.
Comments made at a panel discussion at the Evangelical Theological Society 2010 meeting. (Source) 

Leon Morris (1914–2006)

New Testament scholar, ordained Anglican minister. 

Thomas Schreiner has written that Morris “stood out in his generation as one of the great evangelical scholars” and that “he was an advocate for women serving in all ministry positions.” (Source). Morris wrote essays advocating for women in ministry, and he welcomed women at Ridley Theological College, Melbourne, where he was Principal from 1964 until his retirement in 1976.

In his commentary on Paul’s letter to the Romans, Morris stated that “Phoebe is certainly called a deacon” in Romans 16:1; and that Junia along with Andronicus (mentioned in Romans 16:7) were “outstanding among the apostles which might mean that the apostles held them in high esteem or that they were apostles, and notable apostles at that.” Morris adds, “The former understanding seems less likely …”
Morris, The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988), 529 & 534.

John Stott (1921–2011)

Anglican minister, theologian, one of the principal authors of the Lausanne Covenant in 1974.

If God endows women with spiritual gifts (which he does), and thereby calls them to exercise their gifts for the common good (which he does), the Church must recognize God’s gifts and calling, must make appropriate spheres of service available to women, and should ‘ordain’ (that is commission and authorize) them to exercise their God-given ministry, at best in team situations. Our Christian doctrines of Creation and Redemption tell us that God wants his gifted people to be fulfilled, not frustrated, and his church to be enriched by their service.
… a strong prima facie biblical case can be made for active female leadership in the church, including a teaching ministry.
Stott, Issues facing Christianity Today (Basingstoke: Marshalls, 1984), 254, 275.

I love Stott’s reasons presented in this book for encouraging women in ministry. He had a few misgivings, however, about women serving as senior leaders in certain contexts.

Ben Witherington III (b. 1951)

Professor of New Testament Interpretation at Asbury Theological Seminary, ordained Methodist pastor.

We need to keep steadily in mind that what determines or should determine the leadership structures in the church is not gender but rather gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit. The family of faith is not identical with the physical family, and gender is no determinant of roles in it. Gender of course does affect some roles in the Christian family, but that is irrelevant when it comes to the discussion of the leadership structure of the church. This is why we should not be surprised to find even in Paul’s letters examples of women teachers, evangelists, prophetesses, deacons, and apostles. Paul is not one who is interested in baptizing the existing fallen patriarchal order and calling it good. One of the tell tale signs of Paul’s views on such matters can be seen in what he says about baptism— it is not a gender specific sign that we have for the new covenant unlike the one for the old covenant, and Paul adds that in Christ there is no ‘male and female’ just as there is no Jew or Gentile, slave or free. The implications of this are enormous. The change in the covenant sign signals the change in the nature of the covenant when it comes to men and women.
Why Arguments against Women in Ministry aren’t Biblical, on Dr Witherington’s website The Bible and Culture here

N.T. Wright (b. 1948)

New Testament scholar, Anglican Bishop of Durham (2003-2010)

It is the women who come first to the tomb, who are the first to see the risen Jesus, and are the first to be entrusted with the news that he has been raised from the dead. This is of incalculable significance. Mary Magdalene and the others are the apostles to the apostles. We should not be surprised that Paul calls a woman named Junia an apostle in Romans 16.7. If an apostle is a witness to the resurrection, there were women who deserved that title before any of the men. … Nor is this promotion of women a totally new thing with the resurrection. As in so many other ways, what happened then picked up hints and pinpoints from earlier in Jesus’ public career. I think in particular of the woman who anointed Jesus (without here going into the question of who it was and whether it happened more than once); as some have pointed out, this was a priestly action which Jesus accepted as such.
Wright, “Women’s Service in the Church: The Biblical Basis”, a conference paper for the Symposium, Men, Women and the Church, St John’s College, Durham, September 4 2004. (Source)

Many More . . .

Numerous other evangelical scholars believe that the Bible, correctly interpreted, does not restrict gifted women from any ministry function or position. There are way too many to mention them all, but here is a small sample: Kenneth Bailey, Michael Bird, David deSilva, James G.D. Dunn, R.T. France, Kevin Giles, Joel B. Green, Stanley Grenz, Nijay Gupta, Richard Hays, David Instone-Brewer, Esau McCaulley, Scot McKnight, Roger E. Olson, Philip Barton Payne, Howard Snyder, Todd Still. More in the comments section. (I have chosen to mention only male scholars to avoid an accusation of women being self-serving.)

Furthermore, I count eight past presidents of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) who are mutualists/ egalitarians (or they were before they passed): Roger Nicole (deceased) (year of presidency: 1956), Kenneth Kantzer (deceased) (1968), Richard Longenecker (deceased) (1974), Walter Kaiser (1977), Stanley Grundy (1978),  Alan F. Johnson (1982), Millard Erickson (2002), Craig Keener (2020). And members of ETS, including presidents, “must subscribe annually to the Doctrinal Basis of the Society,” including the doctrine of biblical inerrancy in the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (1978). (Source)

Finally, a quotation from Dallas Willard (1935–2013).

It is not the rights of women to occupy ‘official’ ministerial roles, nor their equality to men in those roles, that set the terms of their service to God and their neighbors. It is their obligations that do so – obligations that derive from their human abilities empowered by divine gifting.
Willard, from the foreword of  How I Changed my Mind about Women in Leadership, editor: Alan Johnson (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010), 10 (italics by the author).

Who else can be added to the list of well-known respected evangelical scholars who advocate for women in ministry?

© Margaret Mowczko 2015
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*I realise the eight men featured in this article are all white. The reality is that until relatively recently—because of the disadvantages associated with the evil of racism in evangelicalism—it has typically been white men who have been able to rise to the top of their professions and make significant contributions to biblical scholarship. Thankfully this is changing, and the longer lists of names in the article and in the comment below it are not all of white men. I have featured the eight men, some of whom are deceased, primarily because their reputations have stood the test of time. I’m thankful for the diversity of biblical scholars, men and women, who are emerging more and more.

Explore more

The Holy Spirit and Equality in the Book of Acts
Partnering Together: Paul’s Female Coworkers
The Means of Ministry: Gifts, Grace, Faith … Gender?
Galatians 3:28: Our Identity in Christ and in the Church
12 Christian Blogs that Don’t Push Patriarchy
Gender Division Divides the Church

142 thoughts on “Prominent Male Biblical Scholars on Women in Ministry

  1. Here are more male biblical scholars, theologians, and philosophers who are sincere, professing Christians and who, to the best of my knowledge, support women in ministry.

    Richard Bauckham
    Gary W. Burnett
    Manfred Brauch
    Richard Briggs
    Graham Cole
    Loren Cunningham
    Peter Enns
    Richard J. Foster
    Daniel P. Fuller
    Michael Frost
    John Goldingay
    Michael J. Gorman
    Douglas Groothius
    Donald Hagner
    John Mark Hicks
    David Hilborn
    Richard Howell
    Luke Timothy Johnson
    Rajkumar Boaz Johnson
    John R. Kohlenberger III
    Hans Kung
    Tremper Longman III
    Matthew J. Lynch
    James F. McGrath
    J. Richard Middleton
    Walter Moberley
    Aloo Mojola
    Domnic Misolo
    David Nystrom
    B.J. Oropeza
    Matt O’Reilly
    Ian Paul
    Cornelius Platinga
    Stanley Porter
    Karl Rahner
    B.T. Roberts
    David M. Scholer
    Loren Stuckenbruck
    Timothy Tennent
    Anthony Thiselton
    John Thompson
    Rikk Watts
    David Wilkinson

    This quotation from Don Carson (a well-known scholar who holds to a complementarian ideology) is about Roger Nicole (a widely admired theologian and professor) who held to an egalitarian ideology. Dr Carson acknowledges that Dr Nicole believed in the authority of scripture, as do other men in my lists.
    “The degree to which [Roger Nicole] espoused egalitarianism ensured he was not entirely trusted in complementarian circles, but no one who talked with him about these matters thought he arrived at his conclusions by trying to skirt Scripture’s authority.” (Source)

    1. Thank you for this excellent list. I was going to add Loren Cunningham; however, I see that you have listed him in this addendum. The book that he and David Hamilton (who also belongs on your list?) has been one of my primary “go-to” resources when teaching on women and men in ministry . . . especially Cunningham & Hamilton’s careful exegesis of Paul’s message in 1 Corinthians and 1 Timothy.

      1. Their book was one of the first I read on egalitarianism.

    2. Thank you so much for this. It’s a shame that egalitarian papers and theology do not get as much publicity as conservative or traditional ones but we’re getting there

      1. Hi Gertrude, I haven’t noticed a difference in the publicity or popularity of papers because of the author’s views on gender.

        The books and papers of the scholars I’ve named in the article and in the comment above are relatively well-known.

    3. I am pretty sure Roger Nicole was for female leadership.
      JI Packer was also. He taught it at my church. He has an article in Women, Authority, and the Bible.
      Gordon Fee
      Kenneth Bailey

      1. Hi Gary,
        Gordon D. Fee is one of the eight men I feature in the article. Kenneth Bailey and Roger Nicole are already in the list under the heading “Many More …” in the body of my article.

        I’ve looked at J.I.Packer’s changing thoughts on women in ministry and there have been some interesting discussions on this on Twitter. I’m guessing you heard him speak positively about women ministers in the late 80s.

        In his chapter “Representative Priesthood” in Why Not? Priesthood & the Ministry of Women (1972; 2nd ed. 1976) he wrote against women as ministers (i.e. priests, presbyters, pastors).

        One reason he gave in his conclusion is, “In the order of both creation and redemption, what man is to woman is an emblem of what God is to us all.” (Internet Archive)

        I reject the premise that male humans somehow represent God to us all.

        It seemed he was convinced of the propriety of women ministers after a conference in 1984 attended by 36 evangelical leaders: Evangelical Colloquium on Women and the Bible held October 9-11, 1984, at Oak Bridge, Illinois.

        After the conference, he wrote his chapter in Women, Authority, and the Bible (1986) (Google Books; Twitter thread).

        One point he made in 1986 was that, in light of the New Testament exegesis, “the burden of proof” was now on the “excluders” (those who exclude women from senior ministries) and that this was “an important step forward in the in-house evangelical debate.”

        In 1988, Packer wrote this,
        I think it is an open question whether in our day Paul would have forbidden a woman to teach from the Bible. It is an open question whether he would have regarded what happened to Eve in the Garden of Eden as sufficient reason for forbidding a woman to teach from the Bible. When you teach from the Bible, in any situation at all, what you are saying to people is, “Look, I am trying to tell you what it says. I speak as to wise men and women. You have your Bibles. You follow along. You judge what I say.” No claim to personal authority with regard to the substance of the message is being made at all. It seems to me that this significant difference between teaching then and teaching now does, in fact, mean that the prohibition on women preaching and teaching need not apply.”
        Packer, The Proceedings Of The Conference On Biblical Interpretation (Nashville: Broadmans, 1988), 114-115.

        In 1991, however, he wrote a piece that was published in Christianity Today with the title, “Let’s Stop Making Women Presbyters.” (Christianity Today)

        One of his arguments was that women becoming presbyters turns them into “substitute men.” I reject the premise that women who are presbyters are in any way, shape or form, men.

        And in 1995 he was on the board of the anti-egalitarian Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood. (Screenshot on Twitter)

        Here’s another Twitter thread that may be of interest. It begins with the line, “While not a supporter of female presbyters, Packer did not believe the teaching/ preaching gift of women should be stifled in the church.”

  2. This is awesome! I had no idea that these great scholars supported an equal role in the Church. Thank you so much for posting this!

    1. Hi Julie, there are many of them, too many to mention. That’s why I tried to restrict my lists to the “heavy-hitters” (as Tim calls them below.)

  3. Thanks for the list of scholars. I know comps can bring their lists too, but it’s good to know there are heavy hitters for egalitarian doctrine too (many of whom comps lol to for guidance on other issues).

    1. “Heavy-hitters”, exactly. 🙂

    2. Who are the heavy hitters, only Bruce might be considered such.

      1. F.F. Bruce is definitely a “heavy-hitter.”

        Most people who are aware of New Testament scholarship recognise that the eight men featured in the article, and their body of work, continue to be hugely influential and respected among English-speaking evangelicals and beyond. If you aren’t familiar with their names or their work, look them up. I recommend reading anything written by these men.

        Or have a look at the work of these men who were past presidents of the Evangelical Theological Society (ETS) and are mutualists/ egalitarians (or they were before they passed): Roger Nicole (year of presidency: 1956), Kenneth Kantzer (1968), Richard Longenecker (1974), Walter Kaiser (1977), Stanley Grundy (1978), Alan F. Johnson (1982), Millard Erickson (2002), and Craig Keener (2020) who is one of the eight featured men.

        Here’s a link to some of Craig Keener’s books.

      2. Wow… this list is stacked with heavy hitters in their day and age: I Howard Marshall is certainly up there; Leon Morris was hugely respected for his biblical scholarship (and won the day on ‘hilasterion’ against C.H. Dodd); Gordon Fee made his name as an authority in textual criticism before his highly regarded exegetical work; both Witherington and Keener are both top tier as NT biblical scholars today; and it would be hard to deny that NT Wright is regarded as one of the preeminent NT scholars of our generation… And I’d second the inclusion of David Scholer who was the world authority on Gnosticism and all things Nag Hammadi…

      3. Wow. I don’t know that I’ve ever before seen someone fail to recognize Fee, Marshall, Keener, and Wright as “heavy hitters,” even if they disagree with them.

      4. Gordon Fee, Ben Witherington, Craig Keener are definitely considered “heavy hitters.”

  4. Don’t forget about John Ortberg, who although he’s not written a book on the topic, teaches on equality all the time and is a firm egalitarian. And Jim Henderson, author of The Resignation of Eve. (http://www.amazon.com/The-Resignation-Eve-Willing-Backbone/dp/1414337302)
    The book How I Changed My Mind about Women in Leadership is a great one with essays from evangelical leaders. http://www.amazon.com/Changed-Mind-about-Women-Leadership-ebook/dp/B0043VEGJI/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1435711698&sr=1-1&keywords=how+i+changed+my+mind+about+women+in+leadership

    1. Thanks for these names, Kerri. I know there are many egalitarian scholars and pastors. Egalitarianism is not a fringe viewpoint.

      And thanks for mentioning me in your latest post. 🙂

  5. Love this post Marg. We hear so much of the negative comments it’s great to hear these positive contributions to bring some balance to the gender debate. Thanks so much for posting this.

    A couple of observations: Craig S Keener states that women are affirmed in their callings in Pentecostal circles. My own experience over 20 years in (Australian) Pentecostal scenes is that though this is the official position, a culture of preference for male leadership, or wives leading alongside husbands, is still pervasive. Wifely submission in marriage is still heavily taught.

    Ben Witherington 111 says: “Gender of course does affect some roles in the Christian family, but that is irrelevant when it comes to the discussion of the leadership structure of the church”. So it appears he also believes there are gender based roles in marriage, though he affirms the callings of women in the wider church.

    It seems a couple of these scholars are still on their journey and it’s difficult to understand how they can affirm women in their ministry callings while perhaps still assigning them to submission in the home. Nevertheless, it’s good to have these quotes all in one place!

    1. Hi Cheryl, I have an Australian Pentecostal background too, so I know what you mean. They believe in spirit-gifting and a form of equality, but most also believe in male “headship“. (The quote from Craig Keener was taken from a Pentecostal journal.)

      I’m fairly sure that Ben Witherington is egalitarian when it comes to marriage too, so I imagine he means procreation when he talks about “family roles” (e.g. only a woman can give birth and breastfeed). I’ll try and find out more.

      1. Thanks for the clarification re Ben Witherington Marg. I don’t know anything about him. Perhaps he was talking about procreation, as you say.

        1. Ben Witherington III has long affirmed gender equality across the board. In his many books on the NT his views come through very clearly.

    2. This is my experience too in Pentecostal/Charismatic circles. I don’t know what it was like before I was born, but they all seemed to have jumped on the complemetarian bandwagon in the 80’s and backpedalled from their foundational positions of ordained women. The “spiritual covering” doctrine with hierarchy for everybody was adopted and disseminated so thoroughly that John Bevere is still writing bestselling books about it and folks eat it up. And it is always applied most to women. Women being pastors was much debated at Bible College, and most girls were there to become pastor’s wives.
      The Foursquare denomination was begun by a woman, but the president Jack Hayford created a study Bible I just sent back because I couldn’t stand the exegesis in any of the usual passages and the constant exaltation of “authority.” Grudem was a contributer.

      1. That’s disappointing. If the Foursquare Church is going to go that route, frankly they should disavow Sister Aimee and just dissolve the denomination as an act of repentance. Anything less is dishonest cowardice.

  6. One observation I have had Marg, is when one of these “leaders” publicly advocates for women in ministry, so many Christians start “backing away” from these men’s ministries.

    I observed how many attacked N.T. Wright, examining his theological positions with a “magnifying glass.”

    And other Christians have been poking “fun” at Pentecostals for years (sad!) But in some Pentecostal circles (here in the US) women have been in leadership for over a hundred years.

    So it seems, (from some of my observations,) that to male scholars, there is a cost to advocating for women.

    I am waiting for the day when there is a “critical mass” of church leaders in various denominations that advocate for women in leadership: so we can finally put this business of women in leadership behind us and get on with kingdom building.

    As always Marg, your blog is a great support tool. 🙂

    1. I’ve noticed that women scholars are especially hesitant in claiming to be egalitarian. Their acceptance in academia, and by the broader reading public in particular, can be precarious, so I have no idea about the ideologies (patriarchal or egalitarian or in between) of some of the major female scholars.

  7. I’ll add to your list Luke Timothy Johnson, a Roman Catholic scholar. See pages 208-211 in his Anchor Bible Commentary on 1 & 2 Timothy. He says, “I recognize, above all, that the uses to which this text [1 Tim 2:8-15] have been put within the tradition to support patriarchal power arrangements, to suppress the leadership of women, and even to legitimate patterns of abuse against women (both within the assembly and within society as a whole) need to be acknowledged candidly and as emphatically disavowed” (p. 208).

    1. Thanks, Jeff. I love this quote, especially the “emphatically disavowed” bit.

  8. BT Roberts, the founder of the Free Methodist Church, first published Ordaining Women in 1891. You can find the full text through the link below.

    1. When I click your link, I get “404 not found.”

  9. More Roman Catholic scholars: Karl Rahner & Hans Kung.

  10. Rikk Watts your fellow Aussie and New Testament professor at Regent College Vancouver strongly advocates for women in leadership.

    1. Thanks for mentioning him, Beth Ann. I hadn’t heard of him before and had to look him up. I’ll look out more for his work.

      1. And he’s back in Australia now at Alphacrusis…fantastic!

    2. I also had Rikki E. Watts in mind. He lectured me in Melbourne Australia.

  11. I like these guys!

  12. I see many encouraging women to be in ministries of all kinds but none advocating for women pastors or elders?

    1. They may not be using the words “pastor” or “elder” in these quotes – church leaders are not called pastors or elders in some denominations. Nevertheless “all kinds of ministries” includes official ministry roles such as being a pastor or elder.

      Have another look at the quotes. These men are advocating for the recognition of the gifting and authorisation of women ministers by the Holy Spirit, and for the removal of restrictions imposed by certain denominations. This allows women to follow God’s call, whether that includes being a pastor, elder, or some other kind of leader or teacher in the church.

      1. Actually Marg, I was with you when you posted this quotes, but now I think you’re going somewhere else with your commentary and suggesting they are saying something that they clearly are not. Note that in the quotes most of them are very careful to delineate that the Scriptures encourage “leadership” and “teaching” of women, but nowhere do they suggest that women may be pastors or shepherds of the churches according to the Bible.

        Let’s be careful to take the point that they made, instead of trying to overextend it to where they clearly did not intend. I for one believe and encourage a strong and vital ministry by women, and my church (Anglican) would be impossible without the wonderful ministries created and run by women, but I do not believe that women can properly be pastors if our life in God is regulated by the Bible.

        1. Hi J.,
          With the exception of John Stott (who I’ve included because I really like what he says, even though he still has slight misgivings about women in a few ministry situations) these scholars are saying what the broad consensus of New Testament teaches: that gender is irrelevant and gifting is what counts in ministry.

          The ability to function as a pastor is a gift, and, like all the other gifts, it is not tied to one gender. That is the position of these scholars. Note that F.F. Bruce uses the phrase “to teach or lead,” and Gordon D. Fee uses the phrase “‘official’ leadership and ministry.” These men are talking about ministries that include being a pastor.

          Interestingly, no woman or man is ever called a pastor of church in the New Testament. And there is certainly no New Testament verse which states that women cannot be pastors, even senior pastors.

          Just to be clear. I am not misrepresenting the views of any of the scholars in my post. They agree that giftedness, not gender, should be the criterion for all ministry to the broader church. Gender may, however, be an issue in a few specialised ministries (e.g., ministering to battered women).

          As Ben Witherington said, “We need to keep steadily in mind that what determines or should determine the leadership structures in the church is not gender but rather gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit.”

          I hope you will take the time to read this short post: https://margmowczko.com/ministry-gifts-grace-faith-gender/

        2. J.,
          Your conclusion assumes that the ecclesiological structure is hierarchical. That is not the model in the New Testament. A Pastor is a Teacher and Feeder. An Elder is a mature Christian. Jesus said, “You shall not lord over each other as the Gentiles”. I am not a Roman Catholic. If I were, I would agree with you.

  13. Did you see that Rev Dr Scott Harrower (Ridley Melbourne) and Dr Greg Forbes (Melbourne School of Theology) have written a new book called ‘Raised from Obscurity’ – assessing the data in Luke-Acts. Let me know if you want to review it!

    1. I’d love to read the book and write a review. I’ll send you an email.

      1. Update
        My review of “Raised from Obscurity is here: https://margmowczko.com/raised-from-obscurity/

        It’s an excellent resource!

  14. Hey Marg!

    You could also add all of Fuller Theological Seminary (my current school) professors to this list. Joel B. Green, John Goldingay, John Thompson, Donald Hagner, etc.

    Love your blog!


    1. All the professors at Fuller?! I didn’t know this. But I did include Joel Green in my “Many More” list.

      Thanks for this info, Nick.

      1. Hi Marg!

        As I understand it, all Fuller profs have to sign a statement affirming the ordination of women.


    2. Thanks for mentioning Fuller (which, as noted, does affirm, as an institution, the full inclusion of women to all the ministries of God). I cannot let the omission of the late Dr. David M. Scholer go by, however. For many years, he was the go-to scholar on this issue at Fuller, until he was taken from us too soon (about 7 years ago now) by cancer.


  15. Great article and thank you for your review of Raised from Obscurity. You are a blessing to the body of Christ.

    1. Thanks, Cosmas!

  16. You might consider adding Richard Hays to the “heavy hitters” list.

    1. Thanks, Hank. I’ll add him to the list.

  17. My wife Linda and I attended a Christians for Biblical Equality conference ten years or so ago, and she, an MD, was astonished not only at the religious abuse stories the members told there, but also their persistence in the face of that abuse. We were impressed by the extremely strong call of the Holy Spirit on their lives, including the almost universal number of graduate level degrees in religious studies all them had. Now if that group could just attract blue collar women, they’d have something.

    I used to blog on this subject, too.

    1. This is a comprehensive list of ministries who have enriched the Church with their teachings. I am pleased to say that our assembly in Melbourne Victoria to have a ministry team that includes 2 ordained women. Each gives a mighty contribution to ministry that cannot be disputed. One is indeed prophetic and the other exhaustive in their contributions.

      1. That’s great, Roy.

        I truly believe churches are healthier when men and women can use their God-given gifts and abilities, and serve the church together without artificial restrictions.

    2. Craighton, I’m a member of CBE, and I am also concerned that it is mostly people with a tertiary education who are involved in our group.

    3. Craighton– any relation to Terri Hippenhammer from Washington state? He’s consulting for the C&MA denomination on “policy governance” currently.

      1. Yes. Terry is my younger brother. He’s doing good work helping church boards govern better. I recommend “Simple Church” by Thom Rainer and Eric Geiger, and “Church Refugees: Sociologists reveal why people are DONE with church but not their faith” by Josh Packard and Ashleigh Hope to help turn churches around from losing members. There are millions of mature Christians who are leaving the institutional church because it has become detrimental to their spiritual well being. We need to wake up before it’s too late.

  18. Another good summary post, Marg. You can add Walter Kaiser and Loren Cunningham to your “heavy hitter” list. Of course I still think the most persuasive argument is to take note of Jesus choosing and commissioning Mary Magdalene as the first witness (and thus teacher) of the resurrection, to be the “apostle to the apostles” –and also that He told her to tell them to wait for Him in Galilee, another form of prophetic teaching. It’s not to their credit that they were slow in accepting these words from her, as it still is not for those who downplay the value of the words of Spirit-led and gifted women JUST BECAUSE they’re women. Such attitudes are long overdue for being changed in the church. Perhaps it bears mention that the teaching words of many women are recorded as Scripture, including the Magnificat of Mary, the hymns of Miriam, and the instructive words and prophecies of Huldah, etc.

    1. Hi Guy,

      Walter Kaiser is already in my list of “many more”. Thanks for mentioning Loren Cunningham.

      It’s sad that the church has been abysmally slow in recognising the intrinsic equality of all human beings.

      As I’ve said elsewhere on this site: “The inspired songs, prayers, praises, and teachings of Miriam (Exod. 15:20-21), Deborah (Judges 5:1ff), Hannah (1 Sam. 2:1ff), Abigail (1 Sam. 25:28-31), King Lemuel’s Mother (Prov. 31:1-9), Mary (Luke 1:46ff), and Elizabeth (Luke 1:41ff) are considered prophetic and are included in Scripture.” Thus their words have the authority of Scripture. But too many churches still do not believe that any woman can be authorised for a teaching or leading ministry where men are involved.

      I can’t help but wonder what they think will happen if a woman teaches or leads a man (which actually happens all the time in western societies anyway.) Are men really that fragile, or susceptible in some unspecified way, that they will be diminished or tainted if taught or led by a woman?

      Barak, King Josiah and his all-male delegation, King Lemuel, Apollos, and other men in the Bible did not seem to have a problem with a woman leading or teaching them. Gender just wasn’t an issue. And it shouldn’t be an issue today if we genuinely believe that at least some women are capable and trustworthy.

  19. Dear Marg & Friends –

    Being a complementarian pastor myself, I feel that some critiques of this conversation should be mentioned….not for the sake of stirring up unnecessary dissension, but in order to promote healthier dialogue between our two “groups”.

    1) While there are several good, conservative scholars listed here (and some far less conservative ones), biblical theology is never primarily determined by how many people hold to a certain view. This is a very minor part of the dialogue between us, because what’s always most important is “What does the Bible actually teach”, regardless of how many people (or who) agree with what it says. None of us are ever to abandon our commitments to what the Bible actually teaches simply because some popular teachers hold to a different view. Even popular teachers can be wrong in their understanding of a particular doctrinal issue.

    2) While it’s fine that our two groups – complementarians and egalitatarians – continue to disagree with each other, we still should speak to and about one another as charitably as we can. When you and your friends make comments suggesting that complementarians disagree with you purely for matters of personal opinion rather than for any biblical reasons, you are being extremely disrespectful toward us. Here are some examples of this which you and your friends have posted here:

    – “We hear so much of the negative comments it’s great to hear these positive contributions to bring some balance to the gender debate.” (Cheryl M.)

    – “I am waiting for the day when there is a ‘critical mass’ of church leaders in various denominations that advocate for women in leadership: so we can finally put this business of women in leadership behind us and get on with kingdom building.” (Lisa G.)

    – “I truly believe churches are healthier when men and women can….serve the church together without artificial restrictions.” (Marg)

    These are very condescending remarks which misrepresent the complementarian perspective. You misrepresent us with these comments because, first, our arguments are not based on personal opinion, but on a commitment to biblical truth (I truly HOPE that a similar commitment – and not simply personal opinion or popular vote – motivates your theological convictions, as well.)….

    Second, because it’s dishonest to refer to complementarians as always being “negative” in their views of women. We, too, love and respect women! In fact, it’s partly because of our high regard for women (and the place of honor that we see given to women in Scripture) that we believe God has ascribed to us distinct functions in our roles, both in the home and the church. Our chief concern is always to exhort men and women to fulfill the roles which God has given to them – not simply what we determine to be correct in our own minds.

    Yes, of course, there is lots of room for all of us to serve God in a multitude of different ways according to how God guides and convicts us – both inside and outside of the church – but if we (complementarians) are correct in understanding God’s Word to teach that men are to be the primary spiritual leaders in our churches and homes – and we certainly believe we are correctly understanding what the Bible teaches – then it would be unreasonable to think that God truly calls women in to pastoral ministry, since the Lord will not contradict what his Word teaches.

    In cases throughout history where women have claimed to have a pastoral call, our conviction – of course – is that they misunderstood God’s call on their lives and stepped outside the bounds of what the Bible teaches is most honoring to God. Does this mean that God couldn’t use the women who stepped into pastoral positions? Absolutely not – God can use anybody to accomplish anything. Nonetheless, this doesn’t mean that the Bible’s teaching on this subject is no longer relevant or true.

    Much more can be said about this, of course, but I know you weren’t aiming for a theological debate here. I just wanted you to hear from someone who doesn’t share the view of everyone else on this page – we really aren’t “bad guys” just because we disagree with you on this issue! We, too, love women, respect women, and regard women as being image-bearers of God, suited to serve others in numerous ways. In no way do we aim to demean or belittle women! On the contrary, we are convinced that women are worthy of high honor!

    Based on our (complementarian) understanding of Scripture, there is no higher honor available to anyone than to love, serve, and teach our children. As a both a pastor and a father myself, I can testify to this…..our kids are truly amazing, and are such a source of joy in our lives! They learn from us so fast, and what they learn from us becomes a constant part of their daily lives as they interact with us, with each other, and with other people. If they learn to be faithful Christians, it will chiefly be because we taught it to them in the home ….and if they don’t learn to submit their lives to God, it will surely be due – at least in part – to our failure as parents. Children are the most important mission field that we have, and women – being worthy of great honor in the home – are (in an ideal family situation) blessed with a greater opportunity to spend time with their children, and teach them by both word and deed how they should live their lives.

    In regard to both the church and the home, we always want women to be able to live up to their full potential for God’s glory – and to make good use of every talent and gift which God has seen fit to bless them with. However, if we are truly submitting our lives to God, then all of us – men as well as women – must do all that we do in a biblical way, living our lives as God has instructed us in his Word. We should never knowingly choose to live in disobedience to Scripture, and we should strive to keep whatever freedoms and liberties we have as individuals within biblical parameters.

    As one example of what this might look like, it just so happens that my own wife is a ministry leader! She is the local area director for Child Evangelism Fellowship – a wonderful, Christ-glorifying ministry which seeks to bring the gospel to children through churches and communities all over our county. She has held this position for nearly sixteen years now (the first ten years as a single woman), and the Lord continues to bring much spiritual fruit and blessing out of her ministry. However, she is not ordained, she is not an elder, and she is not a pastor (nor would she want to be, because of her own biblical convictions about this). On the contrary, she is a missionary who serves under the authority not only of her own ministry leaders (at both the national and state levels), but also under the authority of her local church, which happens to be the church where I serve as associate pastor.

    My wife is a devout and mature Christian, and is also a very gifted speaker and teacher. In her position, she teaches children, and trains both teens and adults regarding how to teach God’s Word to children more effectively….always recognizing the boundaries of her own authority as a teacher, and her role as a servant of the church. She occasionally speaks in church services, but only as a missionary who is offering updates on how God is blessing the ministry, and in order to let her supporting churches know how they may best pray for her and sew into the ministry of CEF.

    As much as my wife loves serving in her ministry position, though, her greatest passions are to train our children in godliness and to encourage and support me in my pastoral work. She longs to leave CEF so that she can devote her full attention to ministering to her family in these important ways, which she believes are her highest callings according to God’s Word. So far, it still seems clear to us that God isn’t quite finished with her in this current role, but she’s praying every day for God’s clear guidance concerning when that day will come!

    In any case, all of us must be careful to let God’s Word – not our own opinions or experiences or the (perhaps wrong) opinions of others – govern over our lives. The devil would like nothing more than to persuade us in our hearts to disregard what the Bible says and to live according to our own personal preferences, but this is certainly not what brings honor to God.

    I’ll leave it to you to continue studying the pertinent biblical passages on this (and every other) doctrinal issue and to seek peace in your own hearts about how God has divinely instructed us to order our lives. Suffice to say, though, that my wife and I strive to submit our lives to God’s Word, and while we may agree with you that the issue of female leadership in the church isn’t exactly a “gospel issue”, we do believe it’s an important one that should be carefully considered. I hope that each of you will make Scripture the guiding authority of your life, and that you’ll then bring all of your personal opinions and preferences under submission to what God’s Word says.

    1. Hi Pastor Josh,

      The only time the word “complementarians’ is mentioned in the article is in a quotation from Howard Marshall, so, unless you think he’s mistaken, I can’t see how the article misrepresents complementarianism.

      The comments you quote from do not mention complementarianism at all.

      1. Marg, you really didn’t afford Pastor Josh an adequate response??!!

        1. Pastor Josh was concerned that we were misrepresenting complementarianism in our comments. But complementarianism is not mentioned once in the comments’ section before Pastor Josh brings it up himself. He has read his own concerns into other people’s comments.

          I was disappointed that he made the subject of Women in Ministry into an “us and them”, egalitarianism vs complementarianism, issue. This dichotomy is unhelpful and false. In today’s church there is a broad variety of views on women in ministry, and many Christians identify with neither complementarianism or egalitarianism. He also makes some other presumptions that have no bearing on this post.

          Furthermore, Pastor Josh suggests to some commenters that they not rely on their own experiences, but he relates some his and his wife’s own experiences. (I honestly have no idea why he did that.)

          Anyway, I am under no obligation to give a response to everyone who leaves a comment. There are other comments on this page that I have not responded to.

    2. Dude.

      When you bang out a tl;dr like that, put a Eutychus Warning at the top for the sake of anyone who might be reading it near an open window.

      Given it’s eight years after the fact, I’ll resist the temptation to respond point-by-point.

      However, I will not resist the temptation to note in regard to condescension and negativity, I’ve not seen any of the egals here match up to John “Go home!” MacArthur. 🙂

  20. I’d add:

    Dr. Amy Peeler
    Dr. Judy Stck-Nelson
    Dr. Beverly Gaventa
    Dr. Kara Lyons Purdue
    Dr. Elaine Bernius
    Dr. Jacqueline Lapsley

    And the list of brilliant women bible scholars goes on! 😉

    1. There are many wonderful women biblical scholars. I’m partial to scholars of the New Testament and Early Christianity. Here are some of my favourites.

      Helen Bond
      Lynn Cohick
      Carolyn Custis James
      Beverly Gaventa
      Sandra Glahn
      Paula Gooder
      Judith Gundry
      Sarah Harris
      Erin Heim
      Karen Jobes
      Dorothy A. Lee
      Margaret Y. MacDonald
      Carolyn Osiek
      Lucy Peppiatt
      Elaine Storkey
      Christine Trevett

      1. Cherith Fee Nordling does not specialize on this topic, but she is very pleasing to hear.

      2. I just recently, via the “Disciple Dojo” YouTube channel, became aware of OT scholar Carmen Joy Imes — https://www.biola.edu/directory/people/carmen-imes

        She’s egal. and quite delightful.

  21. I’m not a “heavy hitter” like the men pictured, mentioned and quoted from who support women in ministry, even as lead pastors and preachers, but I would like to add my name to the list of “not so heavy hitters” who do. I have long supported and promoted women’s full equality with men (and vice versa!) in church, family and society. I am now attending my third Baptist church pastored by a woman (in succession). I find gifted and educated women make great pastors and preachers.

    1. Hi Roger, I’d be happy to add your name. I’ve visited your blog many times.

  22. This conversation has been”what we think” the church should be but instead lets seek God’s word on the matter. We are all called to be in the “ministry” men or women, but it must be within the roles that the bible has clearly set out for us.

    Romans 3:4 God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged.

    (Genesis 3:14-16) “And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: {15} And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. {16} Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.

    (1 Timothy 3:1-13) “This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. {2} A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife…12 Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.

    (Ephesians 5:22-25) “Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. {23} For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body. {24} Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing. {25} Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it;”

    (1 Corinthians 14:34-35) “Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law. {35} And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.”

    (1 Timothy 2:8-15) … {11} Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. {12} But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. {13} For Adam was first formed, then Eve. {14} And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. {15} Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.”

    (Titus 1:5-6) “For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee: {6} If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly.

    (Titus 2:3-5) “The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things; {4} That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, {5} To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.”

    1. On the contrary, each of these scholars have carefully and prayerfully sought and studied the Scriptures to find out God’s will for what the community of God’s people should be like, even if the snippets I’ve provided mostly allude to biblical teaching. There are plenty of other places throughout their writings where they quote Scripture and verse, including the verses you’ve given. (These Scriptures are also the focus of several studies on this website.)

      We all need to be very careful that our conduct and demeanour as Christians does not cause God’s word to be blasphemed and disrespected by those around us in the wider community (Titus 2:5, 8, 10). More on this here.

      1. We live in a time where we have elevated scholars and men above God’s word. They aren’t verses quoted in this article because there are no verses that state women can be pastors. Women are clearly in ministry in the bible but do not hold the role of bishop and pastors and deacons.

        Someone can “seek God and pray” but if they can’t provide scriptures to back up their saying then it is now the word of men and should be taken as an opinion rather then doctrine.

        Romans 3:4 God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged.

        1. I understand that you disagree with what is being stated in the article, but we can disagree without trying to assert that the other is disregarding or dismissing Scripture, or being deceitful in some way.

          In the New Testament no one except for Jesus Christ is identified as a bishop/ overseer (episkopoi) or as a shepherd/ pastor (poimēn). This article has many scripture verses to back this point: https://margmowczko.com/women-pastors-in-the-new-testament/

          But there is a woman who is identified as an apostle (apostolos) and another woman who is identified as a deacon (diakonos). See Romans 16:1-7.

          Paul typically used the exact same terms to describe his male and female ministry colleagues

          Paul’s favourite term was co-worker. Paul mentions several of his co-workers in the New Testament which include three women: Priscilla and Aquila (Rom 16:6); Urbanus (Rom 16:9); Timothy (Rom 16:21); Titus (2 Cor 8:23); Epaphroditus (Php 2:25) Euodia, Syntyche, and Clement (Phil 4:3); Aristarchus, Mark and Justus (Col 4:10-11); Philemon (Phlm 1); Mark, Aristarchus, Demas and Luke (Phlm 24).

          Whenever the Apostle Paul used the term diakonos, he typically used it in reference to ministers with a sacred commission, and he mostly used it for ministers of the gospel. Paul referred to several people, including himself, as diakonoi (ministers): Paul (Rom 15:25; 1 Cor 3:5; Eph 3:7; Col 1:23, etc), Epaphras (Col 1:7), Tychicus (Eph 6:21-22; Col 4:7-9), Phoebe (Rom 16:1-2), Apollos (1 Cor 3:5) and even Jesus Christ (Mark 10:42-45; Rom 15:8). Even the minister in Romans 13:6, who is not a minister of the gospel, has been entrusted with a sacred commission.

          Another of Paul’s favourite ministry terms is the word “labour”. Paul uses the word “labour” (verb:kopiaō; noun:kopos) several times in his letters in the context of his evangelistic and apostolic ministry (1 Cor 3:8; 15:10; Gal 4:11; Phil 2:16; Col 1:29; 1 Thess 3:5). He also uses the word in reference to leadership ministries (1 Cor 16:16; 1 Thess 5:12; 1 Tim 5:17). While Paul uses it in the context of ordinary manual labour (1 Cor 4:12; 1 Thes 2:9; 2 Thess 3:8;), the description “in the Lord” means that the women Tryphena, Tryphosa, and Persis laboured in Christian ministry, possibly in evangelism, or in some other ministry (Rom 16:12).
          More about co-workers and labourers here.

          Paul rarely uses the term “bishop” for a minister, for either a man or woman. (More about bishops/episkopoi, here.)

          Just to be clear, no one here is calling God a liar. We can all agree that God is true. I hope the use of Scripture in this comment eases some of your concerns.

          1. Thanks for the reply. You gave me a lot of verses to look at and think about.

            Maybe I’m having a hard time understanding where you’re coming from so here are a few questions for you.

            1. What is your definition of “Ministry”?
            2. Do you believe they are any gender roles between Men and Woman within family and church?
            3. Do you currently hold a position of leadership?

            Rom 16:1 is interesting because Phebe can be called a deaconess. However Rom 16:7 is not proof that Junia is an apostle and can only be used to show a possibility.

            No matter what ‘titles’ we decide to give someone, it is clear by (1 Timothy 2:8-15) that men have a kind of ‘authority’ that women does not when it comes to teaching. Eve was deceived while Adam was not. This in itself is enough to convince me that man in spiritual leadership provides protection. When this protection is taken away, the serpent shows up and bad things happens…

          2. Hi Ananda,

            1. Ministry = service. The lists in Romans 12:6-8, 1 Corinthians 12:28, or Ephesians 4:11 are a sample of Christian ministries. [More on these lists here.]

            2. The New Testament overall does not teach that, in the New Covenant community of God’s people, gender is the arbiter, or an arbiter, of who can do what. Rather, it is the Holy Spirit, continuing the ministry of Jesus on earth, who gifts and authorises a person for ministry. Biological differences between the sexes come into play for those who have children, but the Bible never says that only the husband or only the wife can be the breadwinner, or do the shopping, or make the final decision on a matter, or clean the house, or change nappies, or pray aloud in church, or lead in prayer and Bible reading in the home, etc.

            3. Question 3 has little relevance if we’re talking about what the Bible says about women in ministry.

            ~ Actually, Phoebe is not called a “deaconess” in the Greek of Romans 16:1, she is called a diakonos: a deacon or minister. (The Greek word for “deaconess” was coined a couple of centuries later.) Having said that, I agree that titles do not matter. Paul did not call Phoebe “our sister”, “a deacon of the church at Cenchrea”, and “a patron of many and of myself” as though they were titles. They are ministry descriptions. Paul was careful in his letters to avoid using ministry terms that denoted hierarchies. As I said, his favourite ministry term or description was “co-worker” which has the sense of sharing work – working together.

            ~ We know Eve’s excuse for sinning – she was deceived. What was Adam’s excuse? The fact is both men and women sin. Yet God continues to use both his imperfect sons and his imperfect daughters for his purposes, for mission.

            ~ Nowhere (that I know of) does the Bible say that the man’s role is to protect women. Rather, we are all meant to love and care for one another, regardless of gender. Love includes protecting one another as the need arises. Plenty of Bible women protected men. Here are just a few of them. Abigail, Michael, Rahab, Priscilla with Aquila, and others also protected or rescued men. Several risked their own lives to do so. What Bible verses say that men have a particular responsibility to protect women? I don’t know of any, but am happy to be proved wrong.

            1 Timothy 2:8-15 is not that clear, in fact some would say verses 12-15 are far from clear. [I write about verses 12-15 here.] I know many churches who do not follow the instructions given in 1 Timothy 2:8-15 to the letter: plenty of Christian churches do not insist that men raise their hands peaceably while they pray, and plenty do not forbid women from plaiting their hair, having gold or pearl jewellery, or wearing expensive clothes. Yet some of these same churches throw a spotlight on 1 Timothy 2:12 and enforce their interpretation of it. Why is that? How can this uneven implementation of 1 Timothy 2:8-15 be justified?

            Anyway, if you want to discuss 1 Timothy 2:8-15, this is not the best page for it. Feel free to click on one of the articles that addresses these verses, here, if you wish to discuss it further.

        2. https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/230254.Why_Not_Women_ Here’s an excellent book on the subject, looking at virtually all the scriptures on the subject.

  23. Excellent write-up!

    1. What about the amount of prominent leaders that disagree with you? such as John McArthur, David Pawson, John Piper, Wayne Grudem, Wayne House, Dorothy Patterson, James Borland, Susan Foh, and Ken Sarles.

      It appears that you are arguing on the basis that these leaders agree with you? is that not to avoid the issue on what the Bible actually says & means?

      1. Hi Clement,

        You are perfectly free to write your own blog post on these people. I do, however, mention several of them in other blog posts. Search for their names if you’re interested in what I write about their beliefs. For example, I have several articles where I interact with the writing of Wayne Grudem: https://margmowczko.com/tag/wayne-grudem/

        Nowhere do I indicate that this blog is a comprehensive statement of what the modern church says about women in ministry. My introduction indicates that there are other Christians who criticise the ideology of Christian egalitarianism.

      2. Clement – I disagree with them & agree with God’s Word understood plenarily.

        1. I’m so glad that you are involved in men’s ministry, Dr Wayman. The church needs more men like you.

          1. Thanks Marg – I’m just trying to be like Jesus who showed immense respect for women, commissioning the first evangelists. Since Jesus commissioned women, why the church does not, is unthinkable. Why would God eliminate 1/2 the world?

            A man of quality does not fear a woman of equality.

  24. Marg – Maybe you will enjoy this. I don’t know who wrote it so I can’t give credit:

    Ten Reasons Men Should Not be Ordained Pastors

    10. A man’s place is in the army.

    9. For men who have children, their duties might distract them from the responsibilities of being a parent.

    8. Their physical build indicates that men are more suited to tasks such as chopping down trees and wrestling mountain lions. It would be “unnatural” for them to do other forms of work.

    7. Man was created before woman. It is therefore obvious that man was a prototype. Thus, they represent an experiment, rather than the crowning achievement of creation.

    6. Men are too emotional to be priests or pastors. This is easily demonstrated by their conduct at football games and watching basketball tournaments.

    5. Some men are handsome; they will distract women worshipers.

    4. To be ordained pastor is to nurture the congregation. But this is not a traditional male role. Rather, throughout history, women have been considered to be not only more skilled than men at nurturing, but also more frequently attracted to it. This makes them the obvious choice for ordination.

    3. Men are overly prone to violence. No really manly man wants to settle disputes by any means other than by fighting about it. Thus, they would be poor role models, as well as being dangerously unstable in positions of leadership.

    2. Men can still be involved in church activities, even without being ordained. They can sweep paths, repair the church roof, change the oil in the church vans, and maybe even lead the singing on Father’s Day. By confining themselves to such traditional male roles, they can still be vitally important in the life of the Church.

    1. In the New Testament account, the person who betrayed Jesus was a man. Thus, his lack of faith and ensuing punishment stands as a symbol of the subordinated position that all men should take.

    1. It was written by Dr David M. Scholer, who is mentioned in a comment above. 🙂


      1. Would one of the theologs here tell me what passages tell us to ordain people?

        I am flummoxed!

        1. Ordination is not found in Scripture… Based on later tradition.

          1. So, we prohibit a non biblical leadership style by adopting a non biblical position? Is that biblical?

            I suggest we all agree not to Ordain a Female as Pope.

        2. Not sure what your comment is in response to, Gary. Especially as (from the little I know about you) I think you would agree with Glen.

          1. Just being “Inductive” rather than “deductive”.

            One post suggested we not “ordain” a woman. Where does the Bible say that or anything about ordination? It does not say anything about ordination, as far as I know.

  25. While there are some competent evangelical NT scholars who are complementarians (e.g. Thomas Schreiner), I cannot think of any ‘Tier 1’ (= heavy hitters) who are not.

    1. D.A. Carson and Douglas Moo are tier 1 scholars who (sadly) hold to a complementarian ideology.

  26. http://cbmw.org/about/council-members/

    The above link contains a list of prominent, many Ph.D level scholars & theologians that disagree with you.


    1. A few of these people are known outside of the USA, but most are not. And some barely qualify as scholars, or not at all. The majority of these people are not heavy-hitters. Rather than being prominent, as you describe, they are parochial.

      Do you know why D.A. Carson and Douglas Moo are not on this list? They had good reasons to sever their association with CBMW.

  27. Hi,
    I found a blog from 2009 referring to Women’s Ordination and particularly to a reason that had been given as to why Queensland Baptists rejected the recommendation to accept Women’s Ordination. When I clicked on the “Here” link, Safari couldn’t find it so I’m presuming this link has been closed. Can anyone give me any documented evidence of this comment. I happen to be researching this topic right now.
    Look forward to any help offered.

    1. Hi Pam,

      In this document (at 5.4) it reads: “Queensland Baptists has decided that women will not be accepted as candidates for ordination.
      (Assembly 22.05.2009)”

      You probably already know about the archives of the Queensland Baptists but, in case you don’t, here is a link: http://www.dparker.net.au/barc.htm There should be plenty of information there.

      1. As to ordination, a guy in my former church said I had a low view of scripture because I encourage every mature believer to use his or her talents and gifts to glorify God.

        I replied, “I have a high view of scripture and a low view of ordination. That rituali is absent from scripture.”

        To argue about ordination is like defending church pews and organs. None are scriptural but acceptable.

        1. I’m with you, Gary. Although I suspect some of the rigmarole concerning ordination in some denominations is getting close to being unacceptable.

          1. Those rituals make it harder for regular people, often called laity, to release their talents and gifts. Many research studies show that once a person enters a guild he is she wants to raise the bar for the newbies.

  28. Funny how you avoid the Biblical scholars through Church history and including the Gospels and Councils of the Church. There is no problem with women being teachers or leaders in the Church, its the priesthood and episcopate which are gender specific … male. Through out the Scriptures and Church history women serve in many capacities alongside their weaker counterparts (males). Not one of them in the Scriptures was a priest. Will we be Biblical Christians, or latest fad Christians?

    1. Hi Stanley,

      I haven’t avoided what other biblical scholars say, and have said, about women in the church. They are mentioned in other posts on this website, including one which is very similar to the article on this page, here.

      Church leadership was never intended to be a priesthood. No New Testament author uses “priest” words for any church leader other than Jesus. And nowhere does the New Testament (including the Pastoral epistles) plainly state that only men can be overseers of a Christian community (i.e. a church).

      Also, women in leadership is not a fad. Many of the first leaders in churches founded by Paul were women.

      1. A niggle from Captain Pedantic:

        In Rom. 15:16, Paul uses “priestly” terminology in regard to himself. However, in context, it appears he is using it in relation to the way believers relate to the world at large (consistent with 1 Pet. 2:5, 9 and Rev. 1:6; 5:10; 20:6), not as a ceremonial class *within* the Church.

        1. I could have been clearer in my comment.

          By “priest words” I meant hierus (“priest”) and presbyteros which later came to be understood as meaning “priest” in some parts of the church.

          As you indicate, Paul used the participle hierourgounta for his evangelistic ministry to the Gentiles (Rom. 15:15-16 cf. Rom. 15:20). He doesn’t use it for local church leadership. And Paul never called himself a hierus (“priest”).

          I mention this in a footnote here:

    2. Oh come on, Stan. She didn’t “avoid” anything. It was never intended as “All the best scholars are egalitarians!!!” Just look at the intro. It was only intended as a pushback against the idea that egalitarians/mutualists have only our wishes and feelings, not solid Biblical scholarship, on our side.

      As for the episcopate, various of those scholars, as well as Marg here on this site IIRC, have addressed the only directly relevant NT passages — 1 Tim. 3 and Tit. 1.

      As for priesthood, this discussion is mainly among evangelicals, or at least Protestants, most of whom see no ceremonial “hierateuma-type” priesthood within the Church, and do not see NT ministry roles as continuing or derived from the OT priesthood.

  29. This is an interesting list and an equally interesting set of comments!

    Here in the UK, especially in England. all the evangelical scholars teaching theology in universities are egalitarian. In our seminaries there are some complementarians, but not that many. In my own denomination (The Church of England) we have 11 seminaries, 6 of which are evangelical and in these 6, 4 have only egalitarians on the faculty. Of the other two, one is almost wholly complementarian but the other has a mixed staff and is moving in a more egalitarian direction, having recently replaced a complementarian principal with an egalitarian one. Most of our ministry students train on regional courses, which is where I teach, and there are no complementarians teaching on these courses. In the 5 non-evangelical seminaries in the Church of England there are several evangelical faculty – all egalitarian.

    You might add to the list from the UK Richard Bauckham (who once famously challenged John Stott over this issue – Stott believed women should only exercise ministry in a team led by a man), David Wilkinson, Richard Briggs, Walter Moberley, David Hilborn, Tony Thiselton – to name a few.

    1. Thanks for your comment, Charles.

      I’ve been wondering whether to clarify my paragraph on John Stott, because I am aware he still had a caveat about women in ministry.

      I definitely should have included Richard Bauckham. I’ve read a few of his books and papers. Thanks for the other names too. In Australia, where I am, many of our scholars are egalitarian or have strong egalitarian leanings.

  30. This is very interesting. I was once with a church who believed that Paul was against women in the ministry – using 1 Timothy 2:12 and 1 Corinthians 13:34. Also used was 1 Timothy 3:2-12 (“A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife”) showing that the Bible only permits male leadership as pastors. They did allow women to lead bible school for children. Then I went to another church and was I surprised to hear a woman giving an opening prayer! The women give opening and closing prayers and are encouraged to ask questions regarding the sermon etc. But still believe that women are not to be pastors.

    1. Hi Leonie,

      Some churches today use 1 Timothy 2:12 as a basis for restrictions. Only a few still use 1 Corinthians 14:34, and so women are allowed to speak in some capacity (e.g. praying or giving announcements in church services). These churches recognise that women prayed and prophesied aloud in church meetings in Corinth (1 Cor. 11:5), which means the prohibition in 1 Corinthians 14:34 must be about a specific type of speech. (More on 1 Cor. 14:34 here.)

      I have no doubt that women, such as Priscilla, functioned as pastors in the first decades of the church. And I strongly suspect Paul’s restrictions in 1 Timothy 2:12 and 1 Corinthians 14:34 were addressing bad behaviour, rather than silencing godly and gifted women. (More about 1 Tim. 2:12 here.)

      1 Timothy 3:1ff is a list of moral qualifications for church leaders, probably hosts of house churches, and does not give anything like a blanket ban of women leaders in every church for all time. (More about 1 Tim 3:1ff here.)

      I believe women and men should be encouraged and equipped to minister in whatever they are gifted to do, whether this is in a Sunday service or in some other setting, and so do the men I’ve mentioned in the article.

  31. I believe that anyone “can be” called by God, to be used as He intends. If that “person” happens to be a “female” it makes her no less called than if a “man” was called. The “only” factor that is critical here is that “called” people “must” preach “the Scripture” not taking one word out nor inserting a word in….. that being said…. I must say that I have had occasion to sit and “fall asleep” while a male person hummed and hawed at the pulpit…… and have been also in attendance while the male had me standing on my seat to make sure I heard every word. Likewise ….a woman in the pulpit. I don’t believe it matters to God, who is at the pulpit as long as HIS WORD is being spread. Go and tell all nations…..

  32. As one writer suggests, wonder what would happen if we allowed the spirit to be unleashed in the church to guide us in these matters? Would the church explode? Would we become what God has intended? Scary isn’t it?
    Maybe someday.

    1. We live in hope.

  33. Daniel P. Fuller (B. 1925)
    Loren Stuckenbruck (B. 1960, formerly taught at Tubingen and Princeton, now teaching in Munich)

    1. Thanks for these names, Jeff.

  34. I’m glad you included Dr. Roger Nicole in your list of “many others”. He was a surprising find and was a stellar example of someone who was theologically conservative, but firmly believed in women in ministry. More about him here: http://archive.boston.com/yourtown/cambridge/articles/2010/12/20/roger_nicole_95_theology_professor_backed_right_of_women_to_become_ministers/
    His extensive library is a special collection at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando.

    1. Thanks for the link, Donna.

  35. One more name for this list – A.J. Gordon, the founder of Gordon College, one of the most prominent Christian colleges in the US. And he founded the college in 1899! Both women and men studied at Gordon College in equality.

    Now, I’m going old school with these two names: George Fox (and his amazing wife), and John Wesley.

    1. Sadly, John Wesley had some reservations about using women as ministers. And he wasn’t egalitarian in his views about women in general. His commentary on 1 Corinthians 11:7, as one example, is pretty miserable:

      “A man indeed ought not to veil his head, because he is the image of God – In the dominion he [man] bears over the creation, representing the supreme dominion of God, which is his glory. But the woman is only matter of glory to the man, who has a becoming dominion over her. Therefore she ought not to appear, but with her head veiled, as a tacit acknowledgement of it.”

      And 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 is about ministry, praying and prophesying aloud, in church meetings in ancient Corinth.

      All the scholars I’ve mentioned in this article were active in the late 20th and/or early 21st century and their works are considered as current scholarship. But one day I want to do an article on scholars of past centuries who believed women could be ministers or that women were ministers in the first century.

      This list would include Chrysostom, Atto of Vercelli, Margaret Fell, Phoebe Palmer, the Booths, A.J. Gordon, B.T. Roberts, Adolf von Harnack, with mentions of Count Zinzendorf, Wesley, and Katherine Bushnell. I’ll have to look at the beliefs of George Fox. I don’t know much about him.

      1. Look into D.L. Moody and A.B. Simpson. The 2005 edition of “Discovering Biblical Equality” indicates they were pretty egal. in regard to women in ministry roles.

  36. Hi. Thanks–this is grand.
    I don’t have time tonight to read every comment through, but I do think it’s hilarious that complementarians always feel the patronizing need to let us know there’s another side and then write long missives explaining their thing to us–as though people in this sort of room wouldn’t be aware. But oh well.

    I’m so pleased you included Daniel P. Fuller. He was one of my (and my husband’s) key theological mentors, a great encourager on this subject, and with his wife, Ruth, who also earned her PhD in theology, a demonstrator of egalitarian life. The frosting on that cake is this: He was also John Piper’s professor and mentor. They eventually parted ways because John…well, you know that story. It’s fascinating to see how often complementation position-holders don’t know the origin of the the position.

    Another, scholar to know about is David Lamb at Missio Seminary (formerly Biblical) in Philadelphia. I’m sure you’d enjoy him.

  37. I am a philosopher, not a biblical scholar, but I have written three books about Jesus and have defended the reliability of the NT. In my book, On Jesus, I speak of Jesus’ egalitarian approach to women.

  38. I realize I am a bit late to this, but it was shared on Facebook and I found it interesting. I read through the comments, So I thought I’d offer a few observations. First, “listing” people out of the context of their writings is deceptive and can lead to inaccuracies. It implies full agreement. Because, second, not everyone on the “lists” stands at the same place theologically, so grouping them together without that context is, again, deceptive. Third, Marg, when a pastor offered a careful and thoughtful response, you were critical and dismissive. But to laity and academics you are respectful and/or friendly. Interesting. And last, the problem of authority is skirted or ignored. This is a key feature that distinguishes the two views. Again, just observations. Thanks

    1. Hi Bob,

      First, I’ve given the citations/sources for the quotations from the eight scholars highlighted in the article, and in five of these instances I’ve also given provided weblinks so that anyone can read the articles where these quotations come from in full. I have not quoted these eight men out of context, you can check; there is no deception going on here. If you can suggest an even more transparent way of citing these quotations, I’m all ears.

      Also, I make no claim, and have no intention of implying, that these eight scholars are in “full agreement” on every point of doctrine but they do all agree that gifted and capable women can be leaders, teachers, and ministers in the church. Furthermore, the men listed under the heading “Many More” are all identified as “evangelical scholars.” I’ve provided a few links so that curious visitors can explore and read what some of these evangelical men have said about women in ministry. Again, if you can suggest a way that I can be more transparent, let me know.

      The men listed in the first comment above are identified simply as “male scholars” with no mention of theological or denominational leanings. These men come from a variety of church traditions and denominational backgrounds. In this group of “male scholars,” most, but not all, are evangelical, but they are all Christians. They are all our brothers.

      Second, I’ve stated the denominations that the eight scholars are affiliated with. All belong to evangelical churches. Again, there is no deception going on here. Rather, I have been honest and clear.

      I have no idea why you think “grouping” the men together is deceptive. Especially as I have provided basic but accurate descriptions of these scholars that fair and adequate for the intended purpose. I don’t understand your concern about the “grouping.”

      Third, I was dismissive of the comments of one pastor, but not of all pastors who left comments. Josh completely missed the point of the article, and he stated that I had misrepresented complementarians. The word “complementarians” is mentioned once in the article, in the quotation from I. Howard Marshall, and his comment seems fair and reasonable.

      The purpose of my article is not to critique complementarians. The purpose is a modest one, one that Josh missed: that there are highly-respected biblical scholars and theologians who do not have a loose approach to scripture, but respect the Word of God and its authority, and who believe that appropriately gifted women can and should be leaders and teachers in the church. That’s it. That’s my point.

      It’s difficult to reply to someone when they have misunderstood my words and have projected their own concerns onto my words. Josh is entitled to his inferences and opinions, and I am under no obligation to respond to them. I am responsible for what I am actually saying in my articles; I am not responsible for what people presume I’m saying. Also, I don’t respond to all comments. Sometimes I even delete comments if they are too silly or off-topic.

      Apart from the very few people who have mentioned in their comments that they are pastors or scholars, or have provided a title, how can you tell which people are pastors or laity or scholars? I think it is odd that you have categorised the people who have left comments as though it makes any difference to how I respond to them. I go by people’s words, not by their jobs or titles.

      Last, authority/authorization is mentioned twice in the article: once in the quotation from Craig Keener and once in the quotation from John Stott. Whatever one’s concept of authority in the church, it doesn’t change the fact that there are numerous, respected, evangelical biblical scholars and theologians who believe the Bible shows that it is fine for a gifted and godly woman to be a minister, etc.

      I discuss authority in other articles on my website. Here’s a link to one of them: https://margmowczko.com/authority-in-the-church/
      And here’s another: https://margmowczko.com/jesus-teaching-on-leadership-and-community-in-matthews-gospel/

      My article is not deceptive. It is honest and transparent. And I’ve been cautious about who I’ve added to the three lists.

    2. I’ve just added a new name, Todd Still.

      Todd D. Still, PhD, is Professor of Christian Scriptures at Baylor University’s George W. Truett Theological Seminary, where he has been on faculty since 2003. He is a graduate of Baylor University (BA, 1988), Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary (MDiv, 1991), and the University of Glasgow (PhD, 1996), and has also studied at the University of St. Andrews and at Cambridge University. He held previous academic appointments at Dallas Baptist University (1995-2000) and Gardner-Webb University (2000-2003) and was an Honorary Research Fellow at the University of Exeter (2008).

      He is the author of a small booklet entitled “Women in Ministry: Biblical, Theological and Practical Reflections” which is freely available online here: https://www.baylor.edu/truett/doc.php/144245.pdf

      In his conclusion Dr Still writes, “I find no clear or compelling biblical grounds to preclude and ample scriptural materials to support women’s full and free participation in the church’s ministry as God might gift and guide. That is to say, I regard those scriptural passages that silence and subordinate women in the church to be situation specific. Taken together, I find the sweep of Scripture to affirm women and to allow for their unlimited involvement in kingdom matters.”

  39. Jon Zens needs to go on your list. He has a doctorate of divinity or something and authored an excellent book on the ”woman passages.” “Searching Together” is his website and magazine. He draws from Reformed, Anabaptist, and organic church thinking.

    1. I appreciate Jon Zens and his work. He has a D.Min. from the California Graduate School of Theology.

  40. For your list: Stanley Porter ~ see ch. 17 of the 3rd edition of Discovering Biblical Equality (IVP 2021). “The basis of gender equality in the Bible is not necessarily found in only a single passage but in an entire complex of teaching that unfolds most clearly in the New Testament. There is a thematic formation regarding gender equality that runs from creation itself to the New Testament” (pg. 330).

    1. Thanks for this, Jeff. Someone had previously told me that Stanley Porter is egalitarian, but I couldn’t find anything to back the claim. I was recently sent a pdf of the 3rd edition but it didn’t work and the person who sent it to me from InterVarsity never got back to me. I’m waiting for the book to become available in Australia.

  41. Just read the list and comments. Graham Cole is another well-respected conservative theologian (ST) to add to your list. He has just retired from Trinity Evangelical Divinity Seminary as a dean emeritus.
    He has written elsewhere on his stance, but part of his view is recorded in the article below.

    1. Ah yes, of course. I don’t know how I could have overlooked him.

      Thanks, Sabina.

  42. I appreciate this list, but why aren’t there any female theologians included?

    1. Hi Joanna, As I say in the article, “I have chosen to mention only male scholars to avoid an accusation of women being self-serving.”
      Also, people who think women should not be church leaders are not usually interested in, and can be dismissive of, what women say on the subject.

      I have chosen evangelical biblical scholars (in the English-speaking world) who were, and are, at the top of their profession and highly respected. Up until a couple of decades ago, because of sexism and racism, these scholars were typically white men.

  43. My MA supervisor who’s written a couple of books & a NT scholar – Jason Myers – is Egal.

    Also Ben Blackwell who is a NT scholar.

    1. Thanks for this, Amy.

  44. Canon Michael Green was Rector of St Aldate’s from 1975 to 1987. I was at Oxford University from 1980 to 1986 and clearly remember him in 1980, at a time when the Anglican Church did not allow women priests, describing the importance of the leadership team at Aldate’s as a team of equals which included both men and women.

    1. Thanks for this, Martin. Quite a few years ago, I read a couple of Michael Green’s books.
      I have his name in this list: “Some eminent scholars who hold the view of conditional immortality include John Stott, I. Howard Marshall, David Instone-Brewer, Richard Bauckham, and Michael Green.” From here: https://margmowczko.com/eternal-torment-or-death/

  45. […] Other top scholars with egalitarian leanings include Kenneth E. Bailey, David Instone Brewer, F.F. Bruce, Gordon D. Fee, Joel B. Green, Walter Kaiser, I. Howard Marshall, Scot McKnight, Ben Witherington, N.T. Wright, and many more, here. […]

  46. […] “How can it be right for complementarians to read and cite books on Bible and theology written by women and disallow them from saying the same things in a church meeting?” From “Women in Ministry” in Women, Ministry and the Gospel, ed. Mark Husbands and Timothy Larsen (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2007), 63.
    I. Howard Marshall is just one of many prominent biblical scholars who do not support restrictions on ministry on the basis of gender.

  47. Marg – have you read this book?: Women in the Church: An Interpretation and Application of 1 Timothy 2:9-15 (Third Edition) – no one can afford to purchase all books relative to a subject, but I was wondering if you have read this one. I have not read it as I cannot read every book published LOL. I think from reading the reviews that it is purely complementarian.?

    1. Hi Kel, I’ve read several, perhaps most, chapters of the second edition carefully, but only bits of the third edition. It is 100% complementarian.

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