The social world of the Roman Empire was patriarchal. Women were typically thought to be less capable than men, yet they were able to lead in certain contexts. This article describes four of these social contexts.
When we put Paul’s words in 1 Corinthians 12:12-31 into practice, we honour all people equally. This means giving extra honour to those lacking it.
More than a century ago, church historian Adolf Harnack was honest and approving in his appraisal of women ministers who are mentioned in the New Testament.
In Ephesians 5:33 it says that a wife should respect (phobeō) her husband. What is the connection between respect & fear? Did Paul want wives to be afraid?
When people think of the “masters” mentioned in the New Testament household codes, they tend to think of men. Many masters in NT times, however, were women. How does this realisation affect the notion of female submission?
Here are excerpts from ancient Gnostic texts that present Adam and Eve in a very different light. Do they help us to understand 1 Timothy 2:13-14?
How are we to understand “man was not created for woman, but woman for man”? Does 1 Corinthians 11:9 indicate that service or submission is the role of women and not men?
In this short post, I look at what Paul meant by “A wife/ husband does not have authority of her /his body” in 1 Corinthians 7:4, a verse that has been terribly misunderstood by some.
Was the first man authorised by God to relay the command about the forbidden fruit to the first woman? What does the Bible say about Adam’s responsibility and authority?
Titus 2:5 contains a word which is usually translated as “workers at home,” but the King James Bible has “keepers at home.” Which is the correct phrase? What is meant by “keepers at home”?
We need to use gender-accurate and gender-inclusive plural pronouns so that we do not imply a gender bias in the Bible and in church when none is intended.
Are you looking for a systematic theology or a book on Christian doctrine that has been written by a scholar with an egalitarian or mutualist ideology? Here are a few good books you might want to add to your library.
Here is a link to one of the best articles I have ever read on so-called ‘biblical womanhood’. In this article Jenny Rae Armstrong writes that “the privileged frivolities of Western homemaking” have nothing to do with the gospel of Jesus.
What does the Hebrew word “kenegdo” mean in Genesis 2:18 & 20? Was the first woman made to be subordinate or suitable or similar to the first man?
Here are 10+ books and resources on Christian marriage written for engaged and married couples, and for marriage counsellors and pastors. They all have an egalitarian, or mutualist, perspective.
Do you have experience with these resources? Are there others that should be added to this list?
Some Christians believe the Trinity is a model for marriage. Does the Trinity model distinct roles and separate spheres? Is there a hierarchy and subordination in the Divine?