This article is also available in Urdu here.
Do you think of God as male? It seems a lot of people do. This is probably due to the fact that God is typically referred to in the Bible with masculine pronouns such as “he”, as well as a few masculine terms including “father”. But does this masculine language really mean that God is male or masculine?
Masculine Metaphors for God
God’s transcendent nature and divine character are beyond our human understanding. To help our understanding, God is often portrayed in the Scriptures metaphorically, using imagery and similes that we humans can identify with. These Biblical metaphors of God are primarily designed to help us understand God “relationally and analogically” and should not be taken literally. (Houts 2002:356)
God is sometimes portrayed in the Bible with metaphors we tend to associate with maleness and masculinity. He is referred to as a father, a king and a warrior, etc. These masculine metaphors have dominated the Church’s view of God. However, the Scriptures also refer to God using metaphors we tend to associate with femaleness and femininity. These feminine metaphors of God have been largely ignored by the Church. We will be looking at some examples of these feminine metaphors below, but first, let’s see what Genesis 1 says about men and women.
Men and Women in the Image of God
Genesis 1:26-27 clearly shows that both men and women were created in the image of God.
Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. Genesis 1:26-27
Not only are men and women made in God’s image, these verses, and the following verse in Genesis 1:28, say that the dominion and stewardship of God’s creation were given to both men and women. Genesis 1:26-28 contains profound truths about the equal status, authority and purpose of men and women. [More on gender in Genesis 1 here.]
Is Leadership Male?
Despite the fact that the Bible nowhere teaches that men better represent God’s image and likeness, the Church has traditionally taught that men are the superior sex, that men more fully represent God, and that only men can be ministers and leaders. In many regards, this message continues today. Some well-known Bible teachers state that God is only to be understood in masculine terms, and, following on from that understanding, they teach that church leaders must be male. This is especially true for many Christian denominations that regard their church leaders as priests.
J. David Pawson, in his book Leadership is Male, is emphatic that God is only to be understood in masculine terms. Pawson dismisses Biblical feminine metaphors of God because he regards “the proportion of these ‘feminine’ references as infinitesimal, compared to the male.” (1997:19) (His emphasis in italics.) This masculinist view of God has also influenced how Pawson views leadership in the Church. Pawson states that he is “thus far convinced” that the leadership of God’s people “must be male.” (1997:10) Pawson’s view does not take into account the leadership of Deborah and several other female prophetic leaders mentioned in the Bible. It also does not take into account Moses’ and Paul’s descriptions of their leadership using maternal terms (Num. 11:12; 1 Thess. 2:7).
The God of the Bible is neither male nor female (sex), nor is he masculine or feminine (gender). If God is understood in gendered terms, this would contradict the affirmation that God is Spirit (John 4:24), lacking physicality (Deut. 4:15-16), and that he is the Holy One who is qualitatively “other” (Isa. 6:2-3; Hos. 11:9; Rev. 4:8). (Houts 2002:356)
Despite the fact that God is Spirit and should not be understood or defined in terms of sex or gender, many of us believe, either consciously or subconsciously, that God is somehow male. This masculinist view is exacerbated by the fact that, in the majority of English translations of the Bible, God is only referred to with masculine pronouns, such as “he”.
The reason God is referred to as “he” is largely due to the limitations of language. There is no “divine” non-gender in the biblical languages (or in English) that we can use when talking and writing about God;  so we are limited to the grammatical genders of masculine and feminine in Hebrew, and masculine, feminine and neuter in the Greek. Many Biblical names and titles of God, such as Yahweh, Elohim, Adonai, Theos and Kurios are grammatically masculine which is the reason why masculine pronouns are used in association with these words.
The Greek word for “Spirit” (pneuma), however, is grammatically neuter, and so neuter pronouns (corresponding to “it”) are often used in reference to the Holy Spirit in the Greek text of the New Testament (e.g., John 14:17; Rom. 8:16, 26b). Nevertheless, these Greek neuter pronouns are usually translated into English as masculine pronouns (such as “he”) simply so that the Holy Spirit does not seem impersonal.
The Hebrew word for “Spirit” (ruach), on the other hand, is grammatically feminine, and some early churches referred to the Holy Spirit in feminine terms. The Syriac Church used feminine pronouns (corresponding to “she”) when speaking and writing about the Holy Spirit until about 400 AD. (Houts 2002:357)
The fact that the word “Spirit” is neuter in the Greek Scriptures and feminine in the Hebrew Scriptures does not mean that the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity, is actually neuter or feminine. Similarly, the fact that God is referred to with masculine pronouns in the Scriptures does not mean that God is actually masculine.
[It is important to note that in many languages, including Greek and Hebrew, the grammatical gender of a noun may or may not correspond to the actual gender of the person or thing being named. The concept of grammatical gender is sometimes misunderstood by people whose only experience with language is English which has very little grammatical gender.]
Why More Masculine Metaphors?
While God is not male, he is often associated with masculine imagery. Perhaps God, through the Biblical writers, used masculine imagery and terms to make a clear distinction between himself and the pagan goddesses of the nations surrounding Israel. One of the most pervasive concepts of divinity in the Ancient Near East was of the mother-goddess. The Old Testament mentions many times that the Israelites took part in idolatrous worship practices associated with the Semitic mother-goddess Asherah.
Margot Houts (2002:356) suggests, however, that God sometimes associated himself with masculinity to accommodate the ancient patriarchal culture of Israel, “in which the masculine line was used to dignify and elevate.” The fact that there are more masculine metaphors than feminine in the Bible does not necessarily mean that God is somehow more masculine than feminine. Rather, the fact that there are more masculine metaphors merely reflects the patriarchal culture of Bible times where women were largely excluded from official roles that involved spiritual and civil influence and leadership.
God, through the Bible writers, used metaphors that the people of Israel could identify with, and they could identify with patriarchy. The cultural norm of patriarchy makes the feminine metaphors of God all the more significant. [See endnote 7.]
Feminine Metaphors of God
In the Old Testament, the feminine metaphors of God are largely of maternal images. One of the few exceptions to the maternal imagery is in Psalm 123:2 where both a master of male servants and a mistress of female servants are used as similes for God.
I lift up my eyes to you, to you who sit enthroned in heaven.
As the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master,
As the eyes of a female servant look to the hand of her mistress,
So our eyes look to the LORD our God, till he shows us his mercy. Psalm 123:1-2
In the patriarchal society of ancient Israel, women’s roles were greatly restricted and women were mostly identified with the role of motherhood. In the Scriptures, God sometimes describes his activity and emotions as the activities and emotions of a mother.
In Isaiah 42:14, God describes himself using the simile of a woman in labour giving birth.
“For a long time I have kept silent, I have been quiet and held myself back.
But now, like a woman in childbirth, I cry out, I gasp and pant. Isaiah 42:14
In Isaiah 46:3-4, God is described as a mother who had carried Israel from birth. It was primarily the mother’s role to care for infants in ancient Israel (cf. Isa. 45:9-12). Commenting on this verse, John Calvin wrote: “God has manifested himself to be both Father and Mother so that we might be more aware of God’s constant presence and willingness to assist us.”
“You who have been borne by me from birth
And have been carried from the womb. Isaiah 46:3b
In Isaiah 66:13, God compares himself to a mother who comforts her children,
“As a mother comforts her child, so will I comfort you.” Isaiah 66:13
In Isaiah 49:14-15, God compares himself with a mother who does not forget her children. Calvin writes in response to this verse: “God did not satisfy himself with proposing the example of a father, but in order to express his very strong affection, he chose to liken himself to a mother, and calls His people not merely children, but the fruit of the womb, towards which there is usually a warmer affection.”
In Hosea 11:3, God describes his love and nurture of Israel using maternal imagery and actions. In some verses, God is described as both a father and mother (Deut. 32:18; Isa. 45:9-12).
In ancient Israel, midwives were always female. Occasionally, God describes himself as acting as a midwife, assisting in the delivery of a newborn. The following verses depict God as the one who brings the newborn baby from the womb (Psalm 22:9-10; 71:6); and who assists in the delivery of the newborn nation of Israel (Isa. 66:9).
Yet you brought me out of the womb . . . Psalm 22:9a; Psalm 71:6.
“Do I bring to the moment of birth and not give delivery?” says the LORD.
“Do I close up the womb when I bring to delivery?” says your God. Isaiah 66:9
When teaching about the Kingdom of God, Jesus used illustrations in his parables that ordinary men and women of that day could understand and identify with. In two of his parables, Jesus used the illustration of two women engaged in household duties as metaphors for God’s activity.
In Luke 13:20-21, Jesus compared God’s activity in the Kingdom using the metaphor of a woman working yeast into bread. This parable is parallel to the preceding parable of the mustard seed planted by a man, in Luke 13:18-19.
In Luke 15:8-10, Jesus used the analogy of a woman sweeping her house to look for a lost silver coin. A common assumption is that the coin was part of the woman’s dowry. However, the original audience may have understood the coin to be part of a small savings, or emergency, hoard that was in the woman’s care. It often fell to the woman-of-the-house to safeguard the household savings. The parable of the lost coin parallels the preceding parable of the shepherd looking for his lost sheep, in Luke 15:3-7.
Not only could women listening to Jesus easily identify with the woman adding yeast to bread or the woman sweeping a house, but the actions of the women in the two parables metaphorically represent God’s Kingdom activities of (1) causing his Kingdom to grow, and (2) carefully searching for a lost soul, with great rejoicing when a soul is found and restored.
It should also be noted that God is sometimes metaphorically referred to in the Scriptures as inanimate objects such as a “Rock”, “Fortress”, or a “Horn” (which symbolises strength), etc. Occasionally God is even compared to animal mothers. [See endnote 8.] The purpose of all these images, metaphors, similes, and descriptions is to help us understand a God who is above our understanding. They are not meant to indicate or imply gender.
The Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church (CCC) correctly states that God is neither man nor woman. It states that God is pure spirit in which there is no place for the differences between the sexes. But the respective “perfections” of man and woman reflect something of the infinite perfection of God: those of a mother (Isa. 49:14-15; 66:13; Psalm 131:2-3) and those of a father (Job 31:18; Jer. 3:4-20) and husband (Jer. 3:6-19). (CCC 370.)
Jesus is Male
God the Father and God the Holy Spirit are beyond sex or gender because they are “pure spirit”. However, Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, came to earth as a male human being. Still, this doesn’t mean God is male. “The gender of Jesus is something that belongs to his human nature which mustn’t be confused with his divine nature. Jesus’ masculinity no more proves that God is male than that it proves that he is Jewish or mortal.”
Perhaps Jesus came as a male so that he would be able to speak in synagogues. Or perhaps it was to fulfil the role of the ultimate Passover Lamb which was male (Exod. 12:5ff; cf. 1 Cor. 5:7; 1 Pet. 1:18-19).
Carrie Bates (2011:11) suggests that “Teachings about self-sacrifice and the treatment of women as social equals would have lost their radical force had those teachings come from a woman. Christ came into a specific historical culture; in order to gain a hearing for the message of God’s liberating love, he came as a male.” If the second person of the Trinity had come as a woman, and willingly lowered and sacrificed herself in the same way as Jesus had, the full implication of that humiliation and sacrifice, and the profound example it provided, could well have been lost, especially for men (Phil. 2:7-8; cf. Eph. 5:25). This is because many cultures reinforce the stereotype that it is more usual for a woman to be humble and servile than it is for a man.
Eric Weiss suggests a different reason altogether which I find compelling. Eric writes,
“I think a reason Christ came as a male was so God’s salvation would be seen as involving and including both males and females. Had Christ, born of Mary, been a female, then salvation could be seen as being from and for and involving only females and the female nature. But the male Christ was born of a woman. And as the first Eve was brought forth from the first Adam, so the second or last Adam was brought forth from the second Eve (as the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches regard Mary) (cf. 1 Cor. 11:12).”
Apart from Jesus, God is not male or masculine, neither is God female or feminine; and yet he has chosen to reveal himself in ways that people in ancient times could identify with – in roles and activities that those people associated with masculinity and femininity. It is extremely important to be aware that the Biblical metaphors are merely images to help us understand God relationally and analogically; they are not meant to define God’s nature and character. This is true for both the masculine and feminine metaphors of God.
God is beyond our human understanding and transcends gender, yet we do know that both men and women are made in his image and in his likeness. Moreover, he has commissioned both men and women to care for his creation. Because of God’s great love for all people, he has made the way for both men and women to be redeemed, and he has called us to be his children and heirs. Furthermore, he has given his Spirit to all believing men and women, equipping them both for service and ministry (Acts 2:18). Though men and women have some fundamental biological differences, we are equal in Christ, theologically and sociologically, and we both reflect the image and likeness of God.
So in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith, for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. Galatians 3:26-28
 Christians typically refer to and address the first person of the Trinity as “Father”. The Hebrew Scriptures that speak of God as being a parent and having children are metaphorical, and the word “father” seldom occurs in these verses. Furthermore, almost no one actually addresses God as “Father” in the Old Testament (Psa. 89:26; Jer. 3:19; cf. Deut. 32:6; Psa. 68:5; Isa. 63:16; 64:8; Jer. 31:9). The New Testament verses that refer to God as “Father” are fairly few except for the verses where Jesus speaks of God as being his and, occasionally, our Father. The reason we commonly refer to God as “Father” is because Jesus did. Furthermore, addressing God as “Father” in the Lord’s Prayer, a prayer often repeated by Christians, has cemented the custom of calling God “Father”. (See Matt. 6:9//Luke 11:2; Matt. 11:27; John 17:19; cf. Rom. 15:6; Eph. 1:3; 1 Pet. 1:3; 1 John 1:3). [Jesus became incarnate by having Mary as his mother and God, through the Holy Spirit, as his father. ]
 The Chinese language has a special genderless pronoun used in reference to divinity. The Chinese character for “he” contains the character for “human” and so is unsuitable when referring to deity.
 It would have been confusing if the Bible writers had switched between masculine and feminine forms of words such as Adonai and Kurios, especially as one of the characteristics of God is that he doesn’t change.
 The neuter, singular article, is frequently used with pneuma in the Greek. Any agreeing adjectives and participles are also neuter and singular in the Greek (e.g., Matt.10:20).
 That some early Christians regarded the Holy Spirit as profoundly feminine is demonstrated in this quotation from the Valentinian-Gnostic Gospel of Philip: “Some said Mary became pregnant by the Holy Spirit. They are wrong and do not know what they are saying. When did a woman ever get pregnant by a woman?” Source: Marvin Meyer, “The Gospel of Philip”, The Nag Hammadi Scriptures (San Francisco: HarperOne, 2007), 54.
Matthew 1:18, 20 and Luke 1:35 state that Mary did indeed become pregnant by the Holy Spirit.
 Asherah shrines and worship are mentioned forty-nine times in nine Old Testament books: Exodus, Deuteronomy, Judges, 1 and 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Micah. Jeremiah refers to Asherah as the “Queen of Heaven”.
 Patriarchy is a form of social organisation in which men are the leaders. In patriarchal societies, men are the leaders of the community, the leaders of clans, and the leaders of families and it is difficult and rare for a woman to have official power and influence. Patriarchy was a result of the Fall (Gen. 3:16) and does not represent God’s ideal in the home, in the church, or in the society. With Jesus’ redemptive sacrifice on the cross, there is now the possibility of equality or mutuality for all people regardless of gender, race, or social status (cf. Gal. 3:26-28).
 God also describes himself using the metaphors of animal mothers. In Hosea 13:8a God describes himself as an enraged mother bear robbed of her cubs. In other scriptures, God is likened to a bird who protects her young under the safety and shelter of her wings (Ruth 2:12; cf. Psalm 17:8; 36:7; 57:1; 91:1,4). In the New Testament, Jesus described his longing to protect Jerusalem using the analogy of a mother hen who gathers her chicks under her wings (Luke 13:34; cf. Matt. 13:33).
 God clearly describes himself as having emotions.
 John Calvin, Commentaries, Volume 8, on Isaiah 33-66.
 In Old and New Testament times, the prevailing patriarchal culture greatly restricted the roles of women. Many women, but by no means all, were limited to domestic roles in the home.
 It is important to note that while Jesus is a man, his maleness is never emphasised in the New Testament. For instance in Philippians 2:7, 1 Timothy 2:5, and 1 Corinthians 15:47, the Greek word translated as “man” (anthrōpos) actually means a “person” or a “human being”. In fact, Jesus is rarely referred to in the Greek as anēr (man); he is most commonly referred to as anthrōpos (a human being). Jesus became our saviour and mediator primarily because he became human, not because he became a male human.
 Andrew Moody, Does God Have Gender? The Gospel Coalition Australia (27.08.2016) (Source)
 Jesus’ example of humility and self-sacrifice and his counter-cultural teaching on leadership have been poorly understood and demonstrated in the church.
 Eric’s comment is taken from an informal internet discussion.
 New Testament ministry is based on the equipping of the Holy Spirit and not on gender. The Holy Spirit gives his ministry gifts as he determines, seemingly regardless of gender (1 Cor. 12:11). This website has several articles about women who were church leaders mentioned in the New Testament.
Catechism of the Catholic Church, Vatican Archives website, http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p1s2c1p6.htm
Bates, Carrie L., “Gender Ontology and Women in Ministry in the Early Church” in Priscilla Papers, Vol 25, No 2 (Spring 2011), 6-15.
Calvin, John, Commentaries, Volume 8: Isaiah 33-36 (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2005)
Hilton, Julie Ann, “Isaiah-Commentary” in The IVP Women’s Bible Commentary, Clark Kroeger, Catherine, and Evans, Mary J., (eds) (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2002), 355-369.
Houts, Margo J., “Images of God as Female” in The IVP Women’s Bible Commentary, Clark Kroeger, Catherine, and Evans, Mary J., (eds) (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2002), 356-358.
Pawson, J. David, Leadership is Male (Guildford: Eagle, 1997)
A quick note on Wisdom and Sophia
Some theologians believe that “Wisdom” (Hebrew: hokmah; Greek: sophia) is a feminine metaphor for God as well as an agent of God. This belief is largely based on Wisdom being personified as a woman in the book of Proverbs. Folly is also personified as a woman (Prov. 9:13ff).
Wisdom’s feminine personification is particularly clear in Proverbs 8:1-38 (cf. Prov. 1:20-33; 9:1-6). Some link this personification with Jesus being referred to as “the wisdom (sophia) of God” in 1 Corinthians 1:24 (cf. 1 Cor 1:30). They even believe Widom, or Sophia, is a divine entity. I do not believe this. I take the personification of Wisdom and Folly to be a literary device. I recommend Dr Karen Jobes’ essay, Sophia Christology: The Way of Wisdom, which is freely available here.
Furthermore, wisdom is not a metaphor, or image or simile, for God because God is wise. Wisdom is one of God’s defining traits in the same way as love is one of God’s defining traits. Therefore, I have not included wisdom as a metaphor for God.
A note on El Shaddai: “The God with Breasts”?
Some believe that El Shaddai, a name of God that is used several times in the Hebrew Bible, is a feminine name and that it means “the God with breasts” or something similar. But this belief is not based on certain fact. We don’t know the sense behind El Shaddai. We can only go by etymology (the literal meanings of parts of the word) and, more importantly, by context. But etymology can be misleading, and the context of verses where El Shaddai appears is varied. (See Gen. 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3; Exod. 6:3; Ezek. 10:5.)
The Hebrew word shad (שַׁד), which is grammatically masculine, does mean “breast” but it also has other meanings, and I see no compelling evidence to translate El Shaddai as “the God with breasts.” Neither did the translators of the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament) who may, or may not, have understood its real sense. Hopefully, there was still some memory of how El Shaddai was actually used in real life when the translators were translating the Hebrew scriptures into Greek.
When referring to God, shaddai (with or without El) is usually translated in the Septuagint simply as theos (“God”). However, shaddai (without El) is translated as pantokratōr (“almighty/omnipotent”) in Job 5:17; 27:13; 32:8; 33:4; 34:10; 37:22. Furthermore, shaddai (without El) is translated as ouranos (the Greek word for “heaven/sky”) in Psalm 91:1, and shaddai (in El Shaddai) is transliterated as “saddai” in Ezekiel 10:5. The Septuagint never translates shaddai with a word that means breasts when referring to God.
While Hebrew scholars today give suggestions on what El Shaddai might mean, none can give firm conclusions. Here are some entries for Shaddai (šadday), as it relates to El Shaddai, in respected Hebrew Dictionaries and Lexicons.
Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (TDOT)
From the entry discussing that šadday means breast:
Breast. The understanding of Heb. šadday as “breast” is related to šadû, “mountain,” but moves away from this etymological basis in scholarly discussion in that this interpretation of ʾēl šadday as a god with breasts takes place against the background of the promises of increase in the book of Genesis (cf. Zoller). The “God with breasts” is explained by way of an assimilation of Canaanite fertility gods with Yahweh, a process leading to an “androgynous monotheism” (cf. Biale). The accompanying textual interpretations, however, are rather far-fetched, and as such the explanation of ʾēl šadday based on them is untenable.
Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament (TLOT)
From the entry on the meaning of Shaddai and of it being a divine name:
(f) Like the ancient transls., the etymologies suggested more recently also differ rather considerably. No consensus has yet developed. Since the material presently available does not permit an assured decision concerning a given hypothesis, reference will be made in the following to the more important older—also in terms of the history of the discipline—and more recent explanations suggested and briefly to the pertinent critical objections.
. . .
(4) šadday is related to the Sem. word for “breast” (Ug. ṯd, Hebr. dual šādayim, Aram. dual tedayyāʾ, Arab. ṯady) and is the name of a fertility deity. Cf. Buxtorf, op. cit. 276, who refers to the classical designation of goddesses (!) as mammosa (Ceres, Diana, Isis); cf. also P. Haupt, FS Wellhausen 212; and Albright and Zoller under (6). Since šadday is a masc. deity, this etymology deserves little attention.
New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis (NIDOTTE)
4. El Shaddai. The identification with Yahweh is made clear in Exod 6:3 (יְהוָה), which links God’s revelation to the ancestors by the name of El Shaddai to Mosaic Israel (see Gen 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 48:3, texts often associated with the P tradition). Its common usage in poetic texts is noteworthy, as is its association with creation and blessing (Gen 49:25). The name occurs extensively throughout Job, a book without specific Israelite references. The name also occurs in association with the non-Israelite Balaam (Num 24:4, 16); in v. 16 it is par. to El Elyon (elsewhere only in Ps 91:1). The meaning of the name remains uncertain. Most often it is linked to mountains (hence, “God, [one] of the mountain[s]”), as gods often were in the ANE. “God of the breasts” has also been suggested. The translation “God Almighty” is based on the LXX; an abstraction of an originally concrete image, this may reflect an educated guess as to meaning on the part of the LXX translators.
Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (TWOT)
Here is part of the entry on El Shaddai:
. . . We need to mention only some of the more tenable suggestions. One is that shadday is to be connected with the Hebrew verb shadad “to destroy,” hence “my destroyer.” A second possibility, and this is the most widely accepted today, is that shadday is to be connected with the Akkadian word, šadu “mountain.” Thus El Shaddai would translate into English something like “God/El of the mountain,” i.e. God’s abode. The ending – ay is to be understood as an adjectival suffix (and thus the translation “of the…. “)
. . .
As El Shaddai God manifested himself to the patriarchs (Exo 6:3): specifically to Abraham, Gen 17:1; to Isaac, Gen 28:3; and to Jacob, Gen 35:11; Gen 43:14, Gen 48:3. The context for most of these references is the covenant, more precisely the command for obedience and faithfulness on the part of the vassal and the promise of progeny by God. It is not to the hills (natural phenomenon) that these men of faith looked for confidence but to the Lord of these hills, the Lord of the mountain (Psa 121:1-2).
Man and woman as the image and glory of God (1 Corinthians 11:7)
Why masculine pronouns can be misleading in English Bibles
Paul’s Masculine and Feminine Leadership
Old Testament Priests and New Testament Ministers
Bible Women with Spiritual Authority
The Portrayal of Women in the Bible and Biblical Inspiration