Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism

There are women pastors in the New testament Priscilla Phoebe Nympha


For the umpteenth time, I’ve been asked where in the New Testament it says that women were pastors. Someone, who I’ll refer to as Tee, wanted information. He said he wanted examples that are “rock solid,” where it says “point blank” something like “’Susan was a preacher and teacher’ in plain text.” In reply to Tee, I rehashed points and arguments that I’ve shared many times before in conversations and in articles.

I wasn’t intending on posting my reply as an article. However, after observing the online hoo-hah over the ordination of three female pastors at Saddleback Church on May 6, I’ve edited and expanded my reply to Tee and posted it here. (If you’re interested, you can see the original conversation on my Facebook page here.) There is a biblical case for female pastors.

Paul’s Ministry Terminology

The apostle Paul doesn’t identify anyone in his letters as a pastor, or as a local church elder or overseer. His favourite terms for fellow ministers are (in descending order): coworker, brother/ sister, diakonos (“minister/ deacon”), and apostolos (“apostle/ missionary”).[1] He also uses “labourer/ labour” words when referring to identified ministers. Paul uses these terms for men such as Timothy and Silas, and for women such as Prisca, Euodia, Syntyche, Phoebe, Junia, Persis, Apphia, etc.

Furthermore, Paul often uses several terms to describe one minister. He was flexible with ministry terminology. He didn’t use fixed titles, so there wasn’t, for example, Pastor Silas or Pastor Phoebe.

If we’re looking in the New Testament for individuals called “pastor,” we won’t find them. If, however, we look for people who functioned as pastors in local churches (which were mostly house churches), then we find women as well as men, and also couples (e.g., Nympha in Colossae, the Chosen Lady in Asia Minor).

The Example of the Ephesian Church

New Testament churches were not organised, and did not function, in much the same way as most of our churches today. And in the New Testament, it’s difficult to find identified, ordained ministers of local churches with titles.

The church in Ephesus, for example, had overseers (episkopoi; possibly patrons, hosts and leaders of house churches),[2] male and female ministers (diakonoi; unspecified ministers), male and female elders (presbyteroi; some elders taught), and enrolled widows (which quickly became a church order).[3] But none of the people with these ministries or roles is identified or named. None of them!

Apart from three apostate teachers, Hymenaeus, Alexander, and Philetus (1 Tim. 1:20; 2 Tim. 2:17), the only people identified as ministers associated with the Ephesian church are Timothy, who was in Ephesus for a limited time acting as Paul’s representative (cf. 2 Tim. 4:13, 21), Prisca and Aquila (2 Tim. 4:19), and the household of Onesiphorus (2 Tim. 1:16; 4:19).[4]

Prisca is arguably as clear an example of an NT church leader or pastor as you can get. I suggest one of the reasons she is not recognised by some as a church leader, apart from the fact that she is female, is because people don’t understand how Paul spoke about ministers and ministry, and they don’t understand how mid-first century churches operated and organised themselves.

Prisca in Ephesus, and later in Rome, was just as much a minister and leader as Stephanas in Corinth. In fact, she and her husband may have had more experience and more influence in ministry than Stephanas and his fellow ministers.

Preachers and Teachers

What about the terms “preacher” and “teacher”?

The only people called “preacher” (kērux) in the NT are Paul and Noah. The word “preacher” is used differently in the NT from how the word is used by many Christians today. This article, here, looks at “preaching” words, both nouns and verbs, in the NT. These words are typically used in the context of proclaiming the gospel message to people who haven’t heard it before.

The only people called “teacher” (didaskalos) in the context of the church are Paul (a few times) and the named leaders in Syrian Antioch who are referred to as “prophets and teachers”: Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen, and Saul (as he was known then) (Acts 13:1). In 1 Tim 2:7 and in 2 Tim 1:11, Paul calls himself by three terms: preacher, apostle, and teacher.

“Teaching” verbs are used for various people in Acts including Peter and John, Paul and Barnabas, and Apollos who was corrected by Priscilla and Aquila. That Apollos (an eloquent and educated man who was teaching in Ephesus) was corrected by Priscilla and Aquila, and that this was recorded in a positive manner in Acts 18, surely tells us something about the significance of the ministry of this couple.

Paul uses “teaching” verbs occasionally in his letters for himself and Timothy, etc. And a “teaching” verb (as well as the noun “prophet”) is used in Revelation 2:20 for Jezebel of Thyatira. Her example shows that women were church leaders. However, she is an example of a bad leader and an errant teacher. (She was given time to repent of her immorality.)

It’s important to note that in his general instructions about ministry, Paul never says that the ministry of teacher/ teaching, or of pastor, is off-limits to women. See Romans 12:6-8, 1 Corinthians 12:28, and Ephesians 4:11. And in 1 Corinthians 14:26 and Colossians 3:16, Paul encourages participation in ministry, including bringing a teaching.

Terminology and Authority

Tee wanted a clear statement such as “Susan was a preacher and teacher.” In fact, we do have a clear statement from Paul about a female minister. Among other things, he says that Phoebe was “diakonos of the church at Cenchrea” (Rom. 16:1-2). Unlike what some detractors say about the word diakonos, Paul typically used the word for Christian ministers, including himself: Phoebe was minister of the church at Cenchrea.[5]

The problem isn’t that there are no women in the NT who ministered as pastors, there are. The problem for some is that Paul, the other letter writers, and the author of Acts, use different terminology for ministers than what most of us are familiar with. And sometimes these authors don’t use any term for someone who is clearly a minister (e.g., the seven men in Acts 6 including Stephen, and Stephanas in 1 Cor. 16:15-18).

Furthermore, many Christians are stuck on the idea that women can’t be church leaders because of a faulty notion of authority. The authority to minister, however, is not an authority over fellow believers, but an authorisation and giftedness from God to function in a certain ministry. Genuine Christian ministry is not about exercising authority over people but about humbly serving them.

Final Thoughts

The church in Jerusalem seems to have been led by men, and also the church in Syrian Antioch. So some may choose to follow that “model.” But as we move north and west from Syria, the names of more and more women ministers pop up, especially in verses about churches in Macedonian and Roman cities. I have no doubt that Phoebe, Prisca, Nympha, and women like them, were influential leaders in their churches.

In one passage, Romans 16:1-16, Paul mentions ten women, seven of whom he describes in some way as ministers: Phoebe, Prisca, Mary, Junia, Tryphena, Tryphosa, and Persis. These women were not called pastors, just as no man in the NT is called a pastor of a church, but at least a few of these, and other NT women, functioned as pastors; they were responsible for the spiritual and physical wellbeing of members in their congregations. There is a biblical case for men and women as church leaders and pastors.


[1] See E.E. Ellis, “Paul and his Coworkers” in Dictionary of Paul and his Letters, editors: Gerald F. Hawthorne and Ralph Martin (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993), 183.

[2] Episkopoi is sometimes translated as “bishops.” At this early stage of the church, however, it is unlikely these Ephesian episkopoi were bishops with oversight of several congregations in a city or parish.

[3] These ministry roles are mentioned in 1 Timothy 3 and 5.

[4] Paul also mentions his plan of sending Tychicus to Ephesus (Eph. 6:21; 2 Tim. 4:12).

[5] Paul was consistent with how he used the word diakonos. He typically used the word for an agent with a sacred commission. These diakonoi include Paul himself (Rom. 15:25; 1 Cor. 3:5; Eph. 3:7; Col. 1:23, etc), Timothy (1 Tim. 4:6), Epaphras (Col. 1:7), Tychicus (Eph. 6:21-22; Col. 4:7-9), Apollos (1 Cor. 3:5), Phoebe (Rom. 16:1), and even Jesus Christ (Rom. 15:8). The diakonos in Romans 13:4, though not a Christian minister, is also an agent of God with a sacred mission. Note also Paul’s description of false apostles as agents (diakonoi) of Satan with a diabolic commission (2 Cor 11:13-15). And in Galatians 2:17 Paul asks the rhetorical question if Jesus is a diakonos, acting as an agent, of sin. Paul is the only NT author to use the word diakonos for a Christian minister, and the citations I’ve given here, plus Philippians 1:1 and 1 Timothy 3:8-13, are every occurrence of diakonos in his letters. Not once does he the word for ordinary servants.

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Explore more

The First-Century Church and the Ministry of Women
Did Priscilla Teach Apollos?
A List of the 29 People in Romans 16:1–16
Partnering Together: Paul’s Female Coworkers
Here are articles on whether women were eldersbishops/overseers, or deacons, or whether they preached in New Testament times.
Here are articles on various NT women who were ministers and church leaders.
And here are all my articles on 1 Timothy 2:12 (“I do not permit a woman to teach …”)

87 thoughts on “There are Women Pastors in the New Testament

  1. This is a very good and succinct summary. Imma gonna steal it, cause Imma gonna need it soon. 😉

    1. With proper citation, of course. 😉

      1. But of course — after all, it is particularly important that they know that this teaching comes from a woman. 😉

        1. I’m a woman and I disagree with this post! Women were not permitted to preach! The women used in this article were not leading in scripture to preach the word of God. Priscilla and Aquila did pull aside to correct Apollos but they weren’t preaching. I do believe women helped in the ministry but not in the capacity of leading the churches. Their roles were more in an administrative, prayer, prophecy capacities. The Lord gave order however Satan has made it a male/female battle of equality.

          Corinthians 14: 33 For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.
          34 Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.
          35 And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church.

          Also regarding man over woman :1 Corinthians 11: 3 But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.

          1. You’re welcome to disagree with this post, Safe Haven, but it doesn’t help me if you don’t point out which statements in the article you disagree with. Do you disagree with the terms Paul used for ministry?

            I disagree with your statement about a battle for equality. It is God who made humanity equal (Genesis 1:26-28). I don’t have to battle for equality, I am equal. I am not in any way inferior to other people, male or female.

            Also, taking one or two verses out of context is never a good idea.

            In 1 Corinthians 14:26-40, Paul silences three groups of people in the Corinthian church. He didn’t just silence the women who wanted to learn but who should keep their questions for home. And even though he silenced three groups of unruly speakers, Paul begins and ends this passage by encouraging orderly and edifying speech without specifying gender. See 1 Corinthians 14:26, 39-40.

            And 1 Corinthians 11:3 is not the only thing Paul says in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16. In 1 Corinthians 11:11-12, he speaks about those who are in the Lord. Paul wanted mutuality for those who are in the Lord, not a hierarchy of status among fellow believers.

            Paul’s overall theology of ministry was, “You have a gift, use it to build up others in the Lord.” He never actually said women can’t “preach.” And the only time he says a woman can’t teach, he was speaking about an Ephesian woman (or perhaps a group of women) who needed to learn (1 Timothy 2:11-12). She wasn’t ready to teach and had to learn quietly and in full submission, the usual conduct of a good student. https://margmowczko.com/1-timothy-212-in-a-nutshell/

            Paul welcomed the ministry of women.

          2. Kephale (head) was not used in Greek to mean “boss” like it does in English. It’s probably a word pun to go with the arguments about covering actual heads and means “source.”
            Also you are importing ideas about “preaching” and leading in church that doesn’t exist in those times. Nowhere is preaching a sermon in church mentioned–preaching refers to announcing the good news to the general public, and has nothing to do with church meetings which were a place for all the believers to share with and encourage each other. We cannot conflate preaching, teaching, and prophesying because they weren’t the same thing, and in Cor 11 we see women are publicly praying and prophesying in the meetings but someone in Corinth is trying to control how they dress. It’s entirely possible that Paul quotes the Corinthians without agreeing with them, amd then says the women have authority over their own head.

    2. What the author does not mention… is that every time Paul addresses a leadership role in the church it is always specifically geared towards men…..
      ** Paul never left a woman in charge of a church he started or had one in a position of authority on any of his missionary journeys…
      **The early church leaders were all men…every one
      **There is no specific record anywhere in the New Testament of a woman leading a church, search for it you won’t find it.

      **A Rabbi was and is a male
      **The High Priest was always a male
      **Jesus only had Male apostles (yes he had woman followers but they were not given authoritative roles…..)
      **When Apollos was corrected they…(both Pricisilla and Aquilla) took him aside and spoke to him in private NOT in a public setting

      1. David, there are some assumptions in your comment that are baseless.

        “Paul never left a woman in charge of a church he started or had one in a position of authority on any of his missionary journeys.” We are only told a few times who Paul left in charge when he moved on. Lydia may have been the main person to care for the church at Philippi when Paul moved on. And Priscilla and Aquila appear to have been the main people to care for the church at Ephesus for a while.

        And who were leaders of the church at Rome if not Priscilla and Aquila? Priscilla is the first Roman who Paul greets in Romans 16. Who was a leader of the church at Laodicea if not Nympha, the only person in Laodicea identified by name?

        “The early church leaders were all men … every one.” “There is no specific record anywhere in the New Testament of a woman leading a church …”
        I’m wondering who you think were the leaders of local churches mentioned in the New Testament. Many of the people mentioned were apostles or Paul’s envoys, such as Timothy and Titus, who came and went. When it comes to local church leadership, there are quite a few women named, as well as men such as Stephanas. In the first century, Priscilla, Phoebe, Euodia, Syntyche, Nympha, and others were leaders in their churches. Women were leaders in churches situated in Roman colonies, more so than in Israel and Syria.

        Christian ministry is service and is open to any gifted and capable person. We are New Covenant people. We are not part of the Old Covenant where ministry was based on physical attributes and ancestry. In the New Covenant, ministry qualifications are spiritual and moral. Christian ministry is open to many more kinds of people than only Jewish rabbis, high priests, or male apostles!

        The Holy Spirit who has been poured out on “all flesh” enables men and women to minister, sometimes as leaders (Acts 2:17-18). And as I say in the article, all the verses that list ministries, including leadership ministries, do not exclude women or hint that they are only for men.

        The authorisation to minster doesn’t change whether one is in a synagogue, a public square, a house church, a jail, a lecture hall, etc. It doesn’t change whether one is indoors or outdoors, or whether it is given in a public space or in a home where many first century congregations met. Paul’s authority didn’t change depending on venue. The same for Philip (e.g., Acts 8:26-40) and Peter (e.g., Acts 10:24-48).

        David, I suggest your view of ministry and being a pastor is too narrow. Like families, churches function better when men and women minister together.

      2. The Prophet was and always was both male and female. What ministry in the church does Paul say is most important and most to be aspired to for EVERYONE? Prophecy. What was prophesied to be the epitome of the New Covenant? Everyone prophesying, both male and female, young and old, slave and free. Prophets preached and taught and reprimanded. Are you going to try to say that Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, and Anna, and Philip’s daughters weren’t authoritative? And how is private teaching less authoritative or potentially problematic than public teaching? It seems you are thinking more institutionally than scripturally.

        All believers are priests and are to minister. Hebrews says, “By now you should all be teachers!” Since all the people you mentioned above had to be Jewish, none of it applies to Gentile believers anyway, nor was the Aaronic priesthood God’s first choice. He wanted all Israel to be priests. Titus and Epaphroditus, and many other apostles Paul trained were Gentile, and he names many female coworkers and commends them, as well as Andronicus and Junia, fellow apostles. And there have always been female apostles (missionaries) down thru church history. (And there were female elders and deacons for the first 3 centuries, before the Catholics deliberately squashed them.) There isn’t anything more authoritative than bringing the Gospel to a new people group and getting scripture into their language. And plenty of male missionaries have used their power unwisely and messed up the church badly. So it’s not like only allowing men is some kind of safeguard against problems.

        The 12 were a special group, intended to be a sign that Jesus was constituting the Kingdom, so of course they needed to be male to match the founders of the 12 Tribes of Israel. What does this have to do with other ministries, even other apostles, when the 12 were a special and distinct group, not to be continued?

        Paul didn’t leave anyone “in charge” in the way tradition would have it. And Jesus forbid even the 12 from exercising “authority over” people. Ministry and leadership isn’t about exercising authority over people. Jesus commanded them to be slaves of all.

      3. Marg did her usual great job in replying. I want to take my shot.

        “What the author does not mention… is that every time Paul addresses a leadership role in the church it is always specifically geared towards men…..”

        It is unclear what you mean by “addresses a leadership role.”

        Taken broadly —

        — It would include Acts 20, where Paul instructs the elders/overseers/shepherds (all three terms are used in the passage). The only mention of the sex of the elders is in regard to the ones Paul prophesied would turn evil, and those were MEN.

        — It would include Rom. 12, where various gifts are listed, and there is no suggestion any are reserved for a particular sex. It may be of some interest that the word “leadership” in 12:8 is a cognate of one of the words used to describe Phoebe in ch. 16 of the same book.

        — It would include 1 Cor. 12, where various gifts, manifestations, etc. are listed. There is no suggestion that any are reserved for a particular sex.

        — It would include Eph. 4, where various gifts are listed, and there is no suggestion that any are reserved for a particular sex.

        — It would include 1 Tim. 3 and Tit. 1, where are listed desirable attributes for elders/overseers for Ephesus and Crete respectively. Contrary to most English translations, nothing in those passages limits those roles to males.

        — It would include Rom. 16, where Paul “addresses,” in the sense of commending or greeting, various leaders, including several women.

        — It would include Col. 4, where Paul “addresses,” in the sense of greeting, Nympha, hostess and thus almost certainly responsible party for the church at Laodicea.

        “** Paul never left a woman in charge of a church he started or had one in a position of authority on any of his missionary journeys…”

        Junia was an apostle. Nympha hosted a house church. Phoebe was a “prostatis.”

        All of those positions involved at least some kind of leadership. (Paul rarely if ever used the term, “authority.”)

        “**The early church leaders were all men…every one”

        This is patently false.

        From just the NT testimony, we can see that Nympha, Junia, Phoebe, Prisca, and many others were “leaders” in various senses.

        Beyond that, Gary Macy (and likely others) have done interesting research showing that for about the first 1100 years of the Church, there was little or no meaningful difference in the “ordination” of men vs. women.

        “**There is no specific record anywhere in the New Testament of a woman leading a church, search for it you won’t find it.”

        Fine. Now show us a “specific record” of a particular *man* “leading a church.”

        But FTR, I believe you are incorrect. I believe the most normal way to understand the greeting to Nympha is to regard her as having responsibility (i.e. “oversight”) for the Laodicean church. And I’m inclined, although somewhat less so, to see John’s “Chosen Lady” as a church overseer.

        “**A Rabbi was and is a male
        **The High Priest was always a male”

        These observations are completely irrelevant. Those offices (for lack of a better word) only existed under the Obsolete Covenant and its Law. That Covenant and Law are no longer in effect.

        “**Jesus only had Male apostles (yes he had woman followers but they were not given authoritative roles…..)”

        This is irrelevant. The original apostles were also all Jews and non-slaves. *At most* their choice would *suggest* (not prove) that only free male Jews could be “apostles.” It would say nothing about who could be teachers, preachers, shepherd-overseer-elders.

        “**When Apollos was corrected they…(both Pricisilla and Aquilla) took him aside and spoke to him in private NOT in a public setting”

        This is irrelevant until and unless you provide explicit evidence that there is some clear rule about when women may and may not instruct men.


        A bit about terminology:

        AFAICT, in the NT, “pastor/shepherd,” in both noun and verb forms, is only associated with two *specific* people: Jesus (multiple times) and Peter (in John 21).

        AFAICT, “overseer/supervisor/bishop,” in both noun and verb forms, is only associated with two *specific* persons in the NT — Jesus (1 Pet. 2:25) and Judas (Acts 1:20).

        “Elder,” AFAICT, is only associated with two *specific* persons in the NT (at least post-Pentecost) — Peter and John.

        So demands to name a “specific” pastor — male or female — are silly.

        1. just a heads up ..

          Nymphas was a man
          Colossians 4:15 NKJV
          [15] Greet the brethren who are in Laodicea, and Nymphas and the church that is in ‘his’ house.

          Junia was a countrymen
          Romans 16:7 NKJV
          [7] Greet Andronicus and Junia, my ‘countrymen’ and my fellow prisoners,

          Aquila and Priscila
          are husband and wife
          a man is the head of the house

          and anytime Paul was present
          none of these were leaders

          1. Hi mc.

            Nympha: It seems you’re relying on one English translation. Paul wrote in Greek and I’ve looked at the Greek manuscript evidence. Most people, myself included, agree that Nympha was a woman. I’ve written about this here:

            Junia: Junia is a female name. Junius is the masculine equivalent, and that’s not what we have in Romans 16:7. All early and medieval scholars took Junia to be a woman, and most still do today. I look at the early and medieval evidence here.

            Paul describes Andronicus and Junia as suggeneis. Paul uses this Greek word four times in Romans for fellow Jews. Just because the word “countrymen” has the word “men” in it, it doesn’t mean Junia was a man. I’ve written about Paul’s use of suggeneis here:

            Priscilla and Aquila: Paul never refers to Aquila as the head of the house. In the older surviving Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, in four of the six times the couple are named, Priscilla (or Prisca) is named first before her husband. In Paul’s list of 28 Roman Christians who are greeted in Romans 16, Priscilla is listed first. First!
            I’ve written about this here: https://margmowczko.com/list-of-people-in-romans-16_1-16/ (See footnote 2 also.)

            I recommend getting the facts straight before giving a heads-up.

          2. Hi mc.

            The link in my email notification took me directly to your post, and I didn’t notice that Marg had already answered you better before I gathered what follows:

            I generally don’t use the NKJV.

            Here are the relevant notes from the NET regarding Nympha:

            “If the name Nympha is accented with a circumflex on the ultima (Νυμφᾶν, Numphan), then it refers to a man; if it receives an acute accent on the penult (Νύμφαν), the reference is to a woman. Scribes that considered Nympha to be a man’s name had the corresponding masculine pronoun αὐτοῦ here (autou, “his”; so D [F G] Ψ [1505] M), while those who saw Nympha as a woman read the feminine αὐτῆς here (autēs, “her”; B 0278 6 1739[*] 1881 sa). Several MSS (א A C P 075 33 81 104 326 1175 2464 bo) have αὐτῶν (autōn, “their”), perhaps because of indecisiveness on the gender of Nympha, perhaps because they included ἀδελφούς (adelphous, here translated “brothers and sisters”) as part of the referent. The harder reading is certainly αὐτῆς, and thus Nympha should be considered a woman.”

            Here are the relevant NET notes for Junia:

            “tn Or “Junias.”
            sn The feminine name Junia, though common in Latin, is quite rare in Greek (apparently only three instances of it occur in Greek literature outside Rom 16:7, according to the data in the TLG [D. Moo, Romans [NICNT], 922]). The masculine Junias (as a contraction for Junianas), however, is rarer still: Only one instance of the masculine name is known in extant Greek literature (Epiphanius mentions Junias in his Index discipulorum 125). Further, since there are apparently other husband-wife teams mentioned in this salutation (Prisca and Aquila [v. 3], Philologus and Julia [v. 15]), it might be natural to think of Junia as a feminine name. (This ought not be pressed too far, however, for in v. 12 all three individuals are women [though the first two are linked together], and in vv. 9-11 all the individuals are men.) In Greek only a difference of accent distinguishes between Junias (male) and Junia (female). If it refers to a woman, it is possible (1) that she had the gift of apostleship (not the office), or (2) that she was not an apostle but along with Andronicus was esteemed by (or among) the apostles. As well, the term “prominent” probably means “well known,” suggesting that Andronicus and Junia(s) were well known to the apostles (see note on the phrase “well known” which follows).”

            “tn Or “prominent, outstanding, famous.” The term ἐπίσημος (episēmos) is used either in an implied comparative sense (“prominent, outstanding”) or in an elative sense (“famous, well known”). The key to determining the meaning of the term in any given passage is both the general context and the specific collocation of this word with its adjuncts. When a comparative notion is seen, that to which ἐπίσημος is compared is frequently, if not usually, put in the genitive case (cf., e.g., 3 Macc 6:1 [Ελεαζαρος δέ τις ἀνὴρ ἐπίσημος τῶν ἀπὸ τής χώρας ἱερέων “Eleazar, a man prominent among the priests of the country”]; cf. also Pss. Sol. 17:30). When, however, an elative notion is found, ἐν (en) plus a personal plural dative is not uncommon (cf. Pss. Sol. 2:6). Although ἐν plus a personal dative does not indicate agency, in collocation with words of perception, (ἐν plus) dative personal nouns are often used to show the recipients. In this instance, the idea would then be “well known to the apostles.” See M. H. Burer and D. B. Wallace, “Was Junia Really an Apostle? A Re-examination of Rom 16.7,” NTS 47 (2001): 76-91, who argue for the elative notion here.”

            Here are Craig Keener’s notes about Junia from the IVP Bible Background Commentary:

            “Rom 16:3-16 Greetings to Friends in Rome (IVP Background Commentary 2nd Edition)
            Rom 16:7. “Andronicus” is elsewhere attested as a *Hellenistic Jewish name. “Junia” is a Latin nomen that should indicate her Roman citizenship. Against attempts to make “Junia” a contraction of the masculine “Junianus,” this contraction of Junianus is not attested, because that is a Greek form of contraction and Junianus and Junia are Latin names. Ancient Christian readers recognized that Junia was a woman. Because she and Andronicus traveled together without scandal, and singleness was unusual, they were undoubtedly a husband-wife team; husband-wife teams were known in some professions, like doctors and lower-class merchants. The majority of scholars read the Greek phrase as indicating that both were *apostles.”

            The bottom line is that translations vary and scholarly opinion is divided. I happen to believe those translations that recognize both as women, and Junia as an apostle, are more likely correct.

  2. Fantastic, as always, Marg!

    1. Thanks, James!

  3. “The authority to minister, however, is not an authority over fellow believers, but an authorisation and giftedness from God to function in a certain ministry. ”

    This succinctly cuts to the heart of the issue. I was raised in a denomination that firmly held that women couldn’t be ordained, yet the entire Sunday School was administered and almost entirely staffed by women.
    When we recognize the inconsistencies, we need to act on that.

    1. This also spoke to me – it literally sent a chill down my spine as I read it!
      As is often the case – the “thing” being debated isn’t really the key. Indeed this has a a lot to do with the inappropriate grasp of power by males.
      Thanks Marg for your amazing work!

      1. Thanks, Pat and Alex. I had a conversation two days ago that I cut short because the person kept insisting that ministry was about authority over people. There was no common ground. 🙁

        1. I so appreciate your thorough research on such important Biblical topics. AND you present it in such a loving way. I come from a family where women were put down, condescending to, and even used and abused. I’ve had to fight resentment and the urge to fight fire with fire. So your example in all of your writings is very encouraging.

      2. The pernicious fascination with “authority” is bizarre.

        They will talk about “servant-leaders” and how the Bible says “the first shall be last,” but they behave as if “serving” is only stepping-stone to get into a position of authority.

        They’ll talk about “head” pastors, and about husbands being the “head” of the household (which is not even what Scripture says), and remark cutely that “anything with two heads is a monster,” impervious to the fact that the “authority” metaphor of “headship” was much less common in that culture.

  4. Excellent. I especially like that you mentioned how we misunderstand authority to minister as “authority over.” I am so happy others are pointing this important missing piece out. If you know of others doing it, please mention them. I only know of Eddie Hyatt in Pursuing Power.

    1. I’m certain I’ve seen many others mention this basic premise. I’ll pay more attention and look for specific references in my reading. I’ve written about authority in the church a few times. https://margmowczko.com/tag/authority/

    2. I mean, the idea of “serving” is right there in the word, “minister”!

      1. Yep. Ministry is service, service is ministry.

    3. Wade Burleson, a teaching pastor of Emmanuel Baptist Church in Enid, Oklahoma, USA, has been teaching a series on Fraudulent Authority. He has previously published a book of the same title. A quote from his Notes for the first lesson: “ It’s never easy to resist a form of control that comes in the name of God, but Fraudulent Authority will help you consider whether or not the pastor or church leader with whom you serve wrongly believes he “rules over” you. There are a few basic principles which serve as the foundation for the study.
      Principle 1: There is only one head of the Church/churches, and all authority is His….”
      The videos of the lessons and a page or two of his Notes for each lesson are here: https://emmanuelenidarchive.org/fraudulent-authority/
      At least one more lesson remains to be posted, from last Wednesday.

      1. Thanks for this Bob!

        Authority in the church is something Wade and I have talked about previously. I have a video of him on my site here: https://margmowczko.com/wade-burleson-christian-leadership-hebrews-13/

  5. “Furthermore, many Christians are stuck on the idea that women can’t be church leaders because of a faulty notion of authority…Genuine Christian ministry is not about exercising authority over people but about humbly serving them.”

    This, a thousand times!

    I really appreciate your thorough work on the biblical texts. I get frustrated when I try to explain that our modern view of a ‘pastor’ isn’t in the Bible, but you’ve discussed it succinctly and clearly. Thank you. It’s a necessary and shareable article.

    1. It’s hard trying to explain quickly that first-century church life was different from church life today. One thing is the same, however; just like today, there was a variety of ways that congregations organised worship and ministry.

  6. Margaret, Thank you for your insights and your common sense. It is very hard to understand how certain Christians (1) can continue to insist upon imposing their spiritual, mental and social abuse; their gender injustice and their subjugation of Lutheran women to being second-class Christians and (2) can claim exemption from the requirements of our Government’s carefully, crafted Social and Sexual Anti-discrimination Legislation. Many of your Readers are very grateful to you, for persevering in your efforts to articulate and to promote human gender equality and equity; equal opportunity and basic human rights and dignity to all humans and including those who were born as females. Keep up your good work. It is still much needed!

    1. Thanks John!

  7. I always enjoy reading your insights.

    Do you think that authority to minister can sometimes imply authority over other believers if the ministry itself is in some way an authoritative position (like a leader or overseer)? Does anyone ever have authority of another believer?

    1. Hi Gareth, It’s a busy day. I’ll get back to you. In the meantime, you may want to look at this. https://margmowczko.com/authority-in-the-church/

      1. Thanks Marg, I have since read that post and many of the comments. Great discussion! It does make clearer.

        I wonder if there is a philosophy genius out there who can help tease-out the relationship between the two aspects of authority. I often have these ideas in my head but it is not until a brilliant mind states them plainly that I say “yeah, that’s what my brain was trying to think!”

        1. I do think there’s a blurry line sometimes. But it would be a great start if we can lose the unhealthy obsession with hierarchical authority (or, “authority over”) that many Christians have.

        2. The question for believers would be is there ANY godly meaning of authority that maps to what the church has promoted for 1800 years about “authority over”. Are we just reading our religious understanding back into scripture? Considering what God said about not setting a king over them and why,

          I don’t know how it is for Australians, but I have trouble figuring out why Americans have difficulty with this concept. We make a big deal about government officials being our employees and public servants and we should throw them out if they misbehave even though Paul says more about submitting to them than to church leaders. But in the church it’s absolute monarchy and oligarchy, and if you criticize someone who is abusing people God will smite you rather than the perpetrator! Absolute power corrupts absolutely and we see it every day.

  8. Jesus forbid apostles from exercising authority over others. They were to serve. I don’t see how anyone else can be more authoritative than them! We don’t do things in a Biblical way nowadays, so believers may be in organizations where one has positional and supervisory authority over another. But that doesn’t have to be equated with the creepy religious idea that someone has spiritual authority over you because they are ordained, or a pastor/elder, or male, or whatever. Jesus is your spiritual authority.

    1. Yes, Jesus gave his disciples authority to do things and he gave them authority over demons, but he didn’t give them authority over people.

      Jesus didn’t use words like “lead” or “govern” when giving instructions to the Twelve. He mostly used words like “serve” and “witness.” (More here.)

      “The authority to function as a Christian minister is the commission to serve as a slave.” (From here.)

  9. I find it interesting that you found I Timothy 2:7, but missed the 8 verses that make up the rest of the chapter. I find myself very curious regarding your interpretation of verses 11 and 12, which seem quite straightforward.

    I hadn’t seen the original Greek in Romans 16:2, which I found interesting and worth noting, but given Paul’s very clear context (which I notice you completely ignored in the majority of references, where it didn’t serve your points) and explicit statements on the roles of men and women towards each other, I find it highly likely that, as a deaconess, Pheobe’s service would have been primarily directed towards the women in her local church.

    1. Here are my articles on 1 Timothy 2:11-15, complete with context: https://margmowczko.com/category/1-timothy-212/

      It is highly unlikely Phoebe only ministered to women. Paul says that Phoebe’s ministry as prostatis was to many, including Paul himself. And Paul was a man.

      But you’re right that Phoebe wasn’t a deaconess. Paul doesn’t not use the word diakonissa (“deaconess”) for her. He calls her diakonos (“minister, deacon”) of the church at Cenchrea. He doesn’t say she was diakonos of the women in Cenchrea.

      Furthermore, as I say in the article, Paul uses the same word diakonos for himself. It’s his word. Paul is the only New Testament author to use this word for agents with a sacred commission, especially Christian ministers. He uses the word consistently in that context.

      My articles on Phoebe are here: https://margmowczko.com/category/phoebe/ And I have a chapter about her in this book: https://www.mohrsiebeck.com/en/book/deacons-and-diakonia-in-early-christianity-9783161566462

      The blog post on this page is about women who functioned as pastors in New Testament churches, it is not a comprehensive essay, but what context do you think is missing in the article?

      Perhaps you’re not understanding the context of first-century church life where, especially in churches associated with the apostle Paul, men and women ministered according to their gifts, abilities, and resources, and only bad speech and behaviour are silenced and prohibited by Paul.

      I have more on Paul’s theology of ministry here:

    2. Marg has elsewhere written fairly extensively on 1 Tim. 2. You may be interested in this page: https://margmowczko.com/category/1-timothy-212/

      As to Rom.16, I’m not sure what about the context, which includes a female apostle named Junia, would require that Phoebe minister mainly toward women, especially since the context is likely that of a “letter of commendation” citing her qualifications to carry, deliver, and explain (to everyone, not just women) the contents of the Epistle, and since her other title, “prostatis,” is a term that at least *can* indicate leadership, and is cognate to “proistemi,” “lead” or “leadership” in 12;8 of the same Epistle.

  10. I understand the context quite well, and regardless of how many essays or books you’ve written, there’s only so much you can twist a few words in a handful of verses. It’s pretty clear you’ve made up your mind about what the Bible says, though, regardless of the actual words on the page, and invested quite a bit of your career in perpetuating that belief. I’m not sure why I thought there might be room for an actual discussion with such blind commitment. Forgive my intrusion, I’ll leave you to… whatever you feel happy about believing, apparently.

    1. It looks like we’ve been talking about the biblical context of Romans 16 and Paul’s actual words. And I’m glad you understand this, TL. Though I notice you didn’t respond to the content of my or Norrin’s comments.

      Yes, there is room for discussion, especially constructive conversations. Isn’t that what we were doing? Though your last comment doesn’t feel like a discussion. Also, what career?!

      I responded to your first comment in good faith with my real name.

      Anyway, bye TL. I wish you well.

  11. Now then, there is the parade, and that was a nice a procession as I’ve ever read on the topic, but yet and still, there is the rain. In this case, a massive thunderstorm that can’t be explained away.

    “The women are to keep silent in the churches; for they are not permitted to speak, but are to subject themselves, just as the Law also says. If they desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it is improper for a woman to speak in church. [NASB: 1995 update. (1995). (1 Co 14:34–35). La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.]

    But these days, who needs the Law.

    1. Hi Dave, It’s interesting that you refer to the examples of women who were ministers in the church as “rain” and two verses where Paul prohibits problem speech from women in two churches as a “thunderstorm.” In real life, thankfully, there are usually few thunderstorms compared with occurrences of much-needed rain.

      Note that Paul addresses problem speech and problem behaviour of men and of women in 1 Corinthians 14:26-40 and 1 Timothy 2:8-15. No one is explaining these passages away. In fact, I highlight these passages many times.

    2. You’re right, Dave, for those of us who are part of the New Covenant, who *does* need the Law? It’s inextricably tied to the Obsolete Covenant, and Paul observed that life under the Law was a curse (Gal. 3), and that every decree, ordinance, and commandment had been nullified and even destroyed on the cross for those in Christ (Eph. 2, Col. 2).

      I’m curious, Dave: Where exactly does “the Law” say what “Paul” claims it says there in 1 Cor. 14:34?

      And given the emphatic phrasing, how did “Paul” in the space of just a few chapters, forget that he expected women to NOT be silent back in ch. 11?

  12. While I do agree women can be leaders in the church and as very valuable members of a congregation, there seems to be a constant fast and loose use of text and at times a jump in logic to promote female pastorialship which just isn’t there in the text.

    I thank you for writing this piece because I’ve been doing a lot of research to understand both sides of this theological disagreement and you’ve presented a case that’s worth studying. However I will say, as a new Christian, it’s concerning to see the text being used in such a fast and loose way such as to present the argument of Priscilla teaching Apollos while leaving out the context of her teaching alongside her husband (covering) and teaching in private (not pastoring or acting in a role as a bishop from what we can see).

    It also seemed interesting that the word bishop was never used directly in the article since we have a definition of bishop and elders from Paul available in Timothy and elsewhere. It seemed intentional but only God knows the reasoning for that so regardless this was well written however I firmly disagree with the conclusion because it just doesn’t align with the text. And as James says not all should be teachers so this is definitely a warning we all should accept with humility knowing God is Holy Holy Holy and if we know to do right and don’t do it we are in trouble. .

    God bless you Marg

    1. Hi Brandon, I agree that a “female pastorialship” isn’t in the biblical text. So why mention it? (“Male pastorialship” is also not in the New Testament.) I do not use the word, or refer to the concept of, pastorialship.
      That is your word and it may be your concern, but it’s not mine. My article is about the women who functioned as pastors in first-century churches, especially those associated with the apostle Paul.

      I’ve been careful with the terms I’ve used in the article, drawing attention to the terms Paul used in his letters.

      Prisca and Aquila are always mentioned together in the New Testament, usually with Prisca’s name mentioned first. I mentioned Aquila only once in the article because my focus was on women who functioned as pastors, not on male pastors such as Aquila.

      We don’t know how private or public Priscilla and Aquila’s correction of Apollos was. The Greek verb proslambanō used in Acts 18:26 can mean “receive into one’s home” (where Priscilla and Aquila’s church met) and “take along/ take aside.” Their correction was certainly known well enough for the story to be related to Luke who included it in Acts. More on this here: https://margmowczko.com/at-home-with-priscilla-and-aquila/
      And what does it matter if it was public or private? Luke doesn’t make an issue of it one way or the other.

      I have no doubt that Prisca and Aquila, who were clearly capable of correcting an eminent and educated visiting teacher, taught on many occasions, especially as they held church meetings in their own home and were recognised as being close friends of the apostle Paul. The three had lived, worked and travelled together. I’ve written more about Priscilla and Aquila teaching Apollos here: https://margmowczko.com/did-priscilla-teach-apollos/
      But again, the emphasis is on Prisca because no one has a problem with Aquila teaching Apollos, even though it is Priscilla’s name that is listed first in the oldest Greek texts of Acts 18:26.

      There’s no hint whatsoever that Prisca was under some kind of covering. The concept of “covering” is an odd doctrine that has arisen from a distortion of a couple of Bible verses. There is no verse in the New Testament that indicates a minister, male or female, needs some kind of “covering” from another person. Is this an example of a “fast and loose use of the text”?

      I mention overseers twice in the article. I have articles on overseers (episkopoi), sometimes translated as “bishop,” here: https://margmowczko.com/pauls-qualifications-for-church-leaders/
      And here: https://margmowczko.com/manage-household-1-timothy-34/

      I mention elders three times in the article. I have articles on elders here: https://margmowczko.com/women-elders-new-testament/
      And here: https://margmowczko.com/elders-in-new-testament/

      James gives an important warning that not all should be teachers. Paul, however, encouraged gifted and capable men and women to bring a teaching and to exercise other speaking ministries in church meetings, as long as it was done in an orderly and edifying manner (1 Cor. 14:26: Col. 3:16).

      All of Paul’s general instructions on ministry includes women (e.g., Rom. 12:6-7; 1 Cor. 12:1ff; Eph. 4:11). Paul only censured and put restrictions on unruly, unedifying, and bad ministry from both men and women.

      You may be interested in the thoughts of these men: https://margmowczko.com/prominent-biblical-scholars-on-women-in-ministry/ Do they play “fast and loose” with the biblical text?

      I also recommend this new article by Rev Dr Michael Bird: https://michaelfbird.substack.com/p/inerrancy-culture-wars-and-hermeneutics

  13. This a tired argument. There is no biblical case for female bishops or senior pastors. In 1 Tim 3:3, 4)”Paul is uses the word episkopoi: (bishop), “”office of overseer…the husband of one wife, sober-minded, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, 3 not a drunkard, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money.

    It is possible for women to be teachers, ministers and helpers( diakonoi) but not “leaders” or “bishops.”

    1. Rory, your response is lazy and flawed.

      There is nothing in the New Testament that states women were forbidden from overseeing, hosting, and caring for local churches. Rather there is evidence that some women, such as Prisca and Nympha, did just that.

      My articles on 1 Timothy 3 are here: https://margmowczko.com/category/1-timothy-3/

      What is tiring is being “corrected” by someone who hasn’t bothered to read or engage with the article and who arrogantly presumes they have superior knowledge.

      “Helpers” shows a poor understanding of Paul’s use of diakonoi.

      Diakonos is Paul’s word for a minister, an agent with a sacred commission. Here are all the diakonoi Paul identifies in his letters: Paul himself (Rom. 15:25; 1 Cor. 3:5; Eph. 3:7; Col. 1:23, etc), Timothy (1 Tim. 4:6), Epaphras (Col. 1:7), Tychicus (Eph. 6:21-22; Col. 4:7-9), Apollos (1 Cor. 3:5), Phoebe (Rom. 16:1), and even Jesus Christ (Rom. 15:8). More in footnote 5.

      Paul identifies no one as an episkopos (“overseer, supervisor, bishop”). Nevertheless, if we take our blinkers off, we see some men and women in the New Testament functioning as such.

      Rory, simply stating, “There is no biblical case for female bishops or senior pastors” doesn’t make it so. However, my article discusses first-century ministry, not anachronistic ideas and titles of church leadership. (See, for example, footnote 2.) And you haven’t even been bothered to point out which point is the supposedly “tired argument” and why it is incorrect in your view.

      1. I prefer the translation “guardian” which has no connotations of slave-master, and taps into the shepherd metaphor better. A shepherd’s primary duties are guarding against wolves, sheep wandering off and/or hurting themselves, and tending the wounded. These are all stereotypical mothering duties as well as fatherly ones.

        And I think scripture is pretty clear on there being a team of elders, not the ‘senior pastor” or “lone bishop” model. And the team of elders needs both women and men because there are both women and men in the church. The idea that the church can make up an anti-christ model like “senior pastor” which is nowhere in the NT, and implement it for 1700 years and that’s fine– in fact if you dare question it you will be excommunicated, but woman elders are anathema because they aren’t definitively mentioned! Double standard anyone?

        1. “I prefer the translation ‘guardian’ which has no connotations of slave-master, and taps into the shepherd metaphor better.”

          Or perhaps “one who watches over,” like the “overwatch” role in the military. That captures the same essence, while being a bit more literal.

      2. I’ve been meandering along for a bit, casting glances in your general vicinity, but not really “following.” Just maybe accompanying. Getting updates, and so on.
        HOWEVER: the fact that your post of May 9 is STILL generating comments, and that YOU are taking the time and energy to respond to those comments, is so impressive that I just signed up as a Patreon.
        Lowest level, of course; the one where you don’t get a tattoo.

        1. 😀 Thank you, Pat. Your support is much appreciated!

          I frequently reply to comments on older articles.

      3. Just a question to add to the discussion.

        Based on 1 Corinthians 11:3 which states
        “ But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.”


        Ephesians 5:24: “Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.”


        1 Timothy 3: 4-5: “[Bishop must be] One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity; (For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?)“


        Hebrews 13:11: “Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.”

        If a woman has a husband, according to the scriptures mentioned amongst others, how can she pastor at church and have her husband submit to her, in the confines of the assembly, and it be seen as scriptural? If a wife is suppose to submit at all times, how can her husband submit to her sometimes?

        1. Hi John, Just as all Christians are to be humble, meek, and loving, all followers of Jesus are to be submissive to one another (Eph.5:21; 1 Pet.5:5 NKJV). Mutual submission is the ideal. I’ve written about this here.

          Here’s another scenario. Children are told to obey their parents (Eph. 6:1-3; Col. 3:20; cf. Mark 7:10). This means that a son is to obey his father and his mother. There are plenty of sons who are pastors where their parents are church members with no issue.

          In the first-century Greco-Roman world, all children—including, or especially, adult children—were expected to obey their parents. (Even pagan authors encouraged their adult male readers to obey their fathers and mothers.) In some cultures today, we still see that adult children are expected to be obedient to their parents. More on this here.

          The words “rule” and “ruleth” in the translations you’ve provided don’t convey the best sense of the Greek behind these words. In modern English, the verb “rule” can mean to exercise ultimate power, control, or authority over people. This is not how Jesus wanted his followers to be led and ministered to. (I’ve written about this here.

          Christian ministry is about serving others not ruling others.

          I’ve written about the word proistēmi used in 1 Timothy 3:4-5, as well as Romans 12:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:12; 1 Timothy 3:4, 5, 12; 5:17; Titus 3:8, 14 here.

          A different Greek word from 1 Timothy 3:4-5 is used in Hebrews 13:7, 17, and 24. “Those leading you” or simply “your leaders” (rather than, “them that have the rule over you”) is a better and perfectly reasonable translation of each occurrence of this word hēgeomai (and the following pronoun = “your”) in Hebrews 13.

          And here’s all my stuff on 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 which contains verse 3 that you quoted: https://margmowczko.com/category/1-corinthians-11-2-16/

        2. Hi John.

          1) Marg has written a fair amount on 1 Cor. 11, most recently just a few days ago here: https://margmowczko.com/1-corinthians-112-16-meaning/

          The relevant point for this discussion is that in context, it is unlikely “head” had anything to do with hierarchy or authority.

          2) At the very least, Eph. 5:24 cannot be as absolute as it sounds, else it would contradict 5:21, which teaches that every Christian is to submit to every other Christian — including husbands to wives.

          3) The CEB more accurately handles the Greek of 1 Tim. 3. Here are verses 1-5:

          1Tim 3:1 This saying is reliable: if anyone has a goal to be a supervisor in the church, they want a good thing.
          1Tim 3:2 So the church’s supervisor must be without fault. They should be faithful to their spouse, sober, modest, and honest. They should show hospitality and be skilled at teaching.
          1Tim 3:3 They shouldn’t be addicted to alcohol or a bully. Instead they should be gentle, peaceable, and not greedy.
          1Tim 3:4 They should manage their own household well—they should see that their children are obedient with complete respect,
          1Tim 3:5 because if they don’t know how to manage their own household, how can they take care of God’s church?

          It is worth noting that when pronouns and idiomatic expressions are translated accurately, overseers / supervisors can be of either sex.

          4) Heb. 13:11 is no problem, though of course those who are in the position of leadership should be mindful of Matt. 20:25. In general, shepherds are to be servant-leaders, not mini-kings.

          Your closing question turns entirely on the citation from Ephesians 5, and when the context of that citation is considered, the citation loses its force.

      4. I may have asked this before, but my Greek is a bit rusty.

        Is there *any* Greek phrase that can be rendered “spouse of one spouse” in a non-gendered way? Wouldn’t “man of one woman” be a generic way of saying this? Much like if you have a group of female friends: in Spanish that would be “amigas”. But if one man friend joins the group the word takes the masculine ending “amigos”. So, if I saw the word “amigos” I could *not* assume this was a group of male friends–it *could* include females.

        I am wondering if the same would be true with the phrase *man of one woman* (husband of one wife)–if it were a mixed group.

        1. Phil Payne supports your thought in the relevant chapters of his “Man and Woman — One in Christ.” More recently, Andrew Bartlett does likewise in “Men and Women in Christ.” Bartlett makes considerable use of Payne’s work, as well as his personal interactions with Payne.

          Specifically, assuming I recall correctly, “one-woman man” could refer either to males or be used inclusively, and one would look to other clues in the context to determine which was intended; in the context of 1 Tim. 3 and Tit. 1, all the nouns and pronouns referring to episkopos and presbuteros are neuter, which suggests one-woman man is used inclusively of both men and women. In 1 Tim. 5, the related term one-man woman is used for the case where women are specifically intended.

        2. Hi Darryl,

          Chrysostom, a native and educated Greek speaker, took μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνήρ (“one-woman man”) in 1 Timothy 3:12 as applying to male and female deacons: “This must be understood therefore to relate to deaconesses [women diakonoi]. For that order is necessary and useful and honourable in the Church” (Chrysostom, Homilies on 1 Timothy, Homily XI).

          As for other terminology, this is something I’ve looked into but I’m not 100% confident of my findings. Even the Greek word μονόγαμος (“monogamous person”) was used for men and not for women (that I can make out). And I can’t find evidence for this Greek word before the second century AD.

          See my reply to Dana here for more details: https://margmowczko.com/pauls-qualifications-for-church-leaders/#comment-62050

        3. Norrin Radd, The noun episkopos (“supervisor, overseer”) and adjective presbyteros (elder) are grammatically masculine, and if there were pronouns associated with these words in 1 Timothy 3 and Titus 1, they would be masculine also. They wouldn’t be neuter.

          I don’t think there are any neuter pronouns in 1 Timothy 3:1-7. I know for sure there are no masculine personal pronouns in this passage (except for one in the Textus Receptus) because I’ve checked. But even if there were, the masculine grammatical gender doesn’t necessarily exclude women.

          This is part of footnote 2 from here: https://margmowczko.com/pauls-qualifications-for-church-leaders/

          “Even if there were masculine personal pronouns in the Greek of this passage, this still would not rule out the possibility that women can be overseers. There are a few grammatically masculine articles, adjectives and participles in 1 Timothy 3:1ff and Titus 1:6ff, but since the masculine gender is the default grammatical gender when speaking about groups consisting of men only and groups consisting of men and women, a case cannot be made that these passages exclude women. If we begin to argue that passages that use grammatically masculine participles, etc, exclude women, then women would be excluded from many of the New Testament scriptures which speak about salvation, including John 3:16.”

          1. Yep. Going from memory, I said “neuter,” which was going way too far. Payne and Bartlett say, as you do, “no masculine pronouns.”

    2. I’m curious — Can you point to anyone in the NT specifically called a “pastor” or “shepherd” (in the sense of church leadership) other than Jesus Himself? Same question for episkopos.

      Are you sure you didn’t confuse “diakonos” with “prostatis” when you said, “helper”? Phoebe held both titles. “Prostatis” in particular suggests some degree of leadership.

      1. I’m not sure that Rory will see your comment.

        It’s not unusual for overconfident people to leave half-baked comments and not check back for responses. It seems they think their comment is a fait accompli.

        1. I know. Wasn’t counting on a reply. Based on the depth of thought evident in his post, I figured he was probably a toss-a-firecracker-and-run sort.

          I replied just in case it turns out he’s interested in real interaction.

  14. I am so glad that I found you!

    1. Hi Cheryl. I’m glad you found me too. And thank you for sponsoring my work!

  15. Thank you, Marg! Well-written and reasoned. I have often found it interesting that so much has been made over the concepts of “Pastor”, “Lead Pastor”, “Preacher”, and “Clergy” when it is clear from reading the New Testament and the NT narratives the concepts attached to pastor, preacher, teacher, etc. have really little in common with the modern view of these roles.

    We have, in effect, created an entire authoritative template throughout the years and have read the Bible through this template: a template that is foreign to Paul. Even the concept of “preaching” (as you pointed out) is actually public proclamation of the gospel generally in the market-place (evangelistically) and not the gatherings. Paul’s “preaching until midnight” is a completely different word than what is typically translated “preaching”. It is the word from where we derive the English word “dialogue”. So, one could argue that Paul was involved in a give-and-take discussion in Troas rather than “authoritative preaching” (whatever *that* is!)!

    1. I agree, Darryl. There are a few words we use differently from how the authors of the New Testament used them and we make them fit with our own version of church rather than try to see how first-century churches functioned.

      And some authors, such as Luke, used several different words for disseminating the Christian message.

      The following is an incomplete list of words used in the New Testament to describe the transmission and teaching of the gospel and Christian doctrine:

      parrēsiazomai means “speak openly, boldly or freely”;
      peithō means “persuade”;
      martureō means “testify” or “bear witness”;
      legō or laleō simply means “speak,” “talk,” or “tell”;
      dialegomai means “discuss,” “reason,” or “dispute”;
      parakaleō means “exhort” or “encourage”;
      kēryssō means “proclaim” or “preach”;
      euaggelizomai means “proclaim the good news or gospel”;
      nouthetō means “admonish,” “warn,” or “exhort”;
      ektithēmi means “put forth” or “explain”;
      disdaskō means “teach”; etc.
      There are also verbs with an aggel– stem and with different prefixes (one occurrence in the New Testament with no prefix) that mean “report” or “announce,” etc.
      From here: https://margmowczko.com/did-priscilla-teach-apollos/

      1. Wow, Marg! How perfect! I have wanted such a list!

    2. It really is rather discomfiting to realize how much we assume, and how much of our own experiences we unconsciously eisegete into Scripture every time we read it.

  16. Well said!

  17. ” Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. ” -2 Timothy 2:11-14

    1. I’m assuming you quote these verses because you disagree with something in the article. This is a lazy response, Rachel. It’s also a textbook case of proof-texting which is an unhealthy way of using the Bible. You didn’t even cite the verses properly; you’ve quoted from First Timothy, not Second Timothy.

      Why stop at verse 14? And why not begin at 1 Timothy 2:8?

      In 1 Timothy 2:8-15 Paul addresses problem behaviour from certain people in the Ephesian church:
      ~ angry quarrelling men (plural) 1 Timothy 2:8.
      ~ rich overdressed women (plural) 1 Timothy 2:9-10.
      ~ a woman (singular) who needed to learn and not teach, and not domineer a man (singular). She needed to settled down. 1 Timothy 2:11-12.
      Paul emphasises hesuchia, a Greek word he uses at the beginning and end of these verses 11-12, which means to be calm and settled.

      These verses in 1 Timothy 2 are not Paul’s general teaching on ministry. But if you’d bothered to read the article and if you had a broad grasp of scripture, you’d know that.

      Verses 13-15 may well be Paul giving Timothy information to correct her faulty teaching and domineering behaviour.

      I take 1 Timothy 2:8-15 literally, and nothing in this passage says women cannot serve as pastors. Paul valued women who pastored and cared for congregations, often in their own homes. Shame on you, Rachel, for misappropriating Holy Writ and using it to restrict the service of your sisters.


  18. What do we do with the whole “women should be silent” in the church thing then? It’s clear women DO function in the church, but it still seems hazy to me about the whole leadership idea.

    1. Hi Rachel, As with 1 Timothy 2, we read 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 in context: the context of the immediate passage and the context of the entire letter.

      Paul silences three groups of speakers in 1 Corinthians 14:34-35, not just women with questions that could keep for home. And he begins and ends this passage by encouraging orderly, edifying speech without specifying gender in any way.

      I have a shortish article on 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 here:

      Furthermore, Paul acknowledges that women pray and prophesy in church meetings in Corinth, they are speaking and he doesn’t silence them. But he does tell women, and the men, who were speaking, to wear their hair in socially respectable hairstyles (1 Cor. 11:5, 15). Some believe Paul is speaking about head coverings here.

      A shortish article on 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 here:

      We also need to have some understanding of what first-century churches were like. Most were house churches, and in this setting, gifted women ministered and led.

      A short article on the culture of first-century church life is here:

      And a longer article on first-century churches is here:

      Paul never says women cannot be church leaders. No verse in the Bible says that women cannot be church leaders.

      Here’s a list of New Testament women who were prominent ministers and leaders in their churches:

  19. If God calls a woman to be a minister, who has the authority to say she shouldn’t be allowed? This seems more political than Biblical. I have heard some women ministers preach that I don’t believe they would be doing so if God hadn’t called them.

    1. I think you’re right, Tom.

      In many instances the resistance against women serving as teachers, pastors, and leaders in Christian communities, churches, is political. And the resistance is exacerbated by flawed interpretations of a few verses and not understanding how first-century churches functioned.

    2. It’s kind of a presupposition thing. If you’re convinced that a few Scriptures “clearly” and absolutely prohibit women from teaching men, then you’ll believe that God will never call them to do that, and they’re deceived if they believe they have such a calling.

      And some of them get really dug in to that perspective and view any other handling of those passages as “twisting” or “negating” Scripture. They often won’t even charitably and seriously consider other translations or interpretations.

  20. I have a Woman Pastor, preacher, leader, Shepard and whatever other English word you want to use. I thank God for her daily! Don’t get lost in the natural! Hopefully, male and female pastors rely on the Holy Spirit to teach. As for me I will serve the Lord. Is the Holy Spirit different in a woman than a man? Hopefully you say No…. Thank you Marg for outstanding study to show thyself approved

  21. I like how you use specific versions of the Bible to fit your narrative.

    But the vast majority of versions flat out disagree with you. For example, of the ~50 or so bible versions on BibleGateway in regards to Romans 16:1…

    About 43 of them call Phoebe a servant or helper or deaconess. Not a minister.

    You also assume Prisca (Priscilla) was directly involved in “teaching” Apollos. The Bible simply says Aquila and his wife (Acts 18:2) took him aside (away from the temple) and spoke to him there. We know nothing about what was said or who said it.

    I won’t go into much more because I’m sure you’ll use an obscure version to argue with it and lots of assumptions but scripture is clear on qualifications for being a pastor. Women simply can’t be pastors. They can teach and lead other women. But they can’t lead a church.

    1. Hi Mike, I haven’t quoted from any English translation in my article. The automatically highlighted texts are of the CSB and it has “servant” in Romans 16:1. So I don’t understand your accusation that I’ve used “specific versions of the Bible” to fit my narrative.

      It is helpful to link to an English translation because very few people read the New Testament in Greek. I am, however, one of them. I read the Greek New Testament for study and devotional reading. It’s my everyday New Testament. In other words, I can read the Greek New Testament almost fluently, and I supplement this by reading other ancient Greek texts and documents to improve my knowledge.

      Paul calls Phoebe a diakonos, and that’s the word I’m interested in. Diakonos is Paul’s word for a minister. (Ministers are servants, at least they should be.) Paul is the only New Testament author to use diakonos for a minister, and he uses it consistently this way. In particular, he uses this word with the sense of an “agent with a sacred commission.” This is something I’ve looked into and I’ve written about it here:
      And here:
      And here:

      Priscilla is mentioned first, before Aquila, in all the oldest manuscripts of Acts 18:26. (I have no idea where you’re getting the idea of a “temple” from.) Priscilla, Aquila, and Apollos are in Ephesus, and they met with fellow believers in a Jewish synagogue and at home. Many first-century Christian congregations used homes as a base for worship and fellowship, and some of these house churches were hosted and cared for (“managed”) by women such as Priscilla.

      Since you like comparing English translations, note how many have Priscilla’s name first in Acts 18:26b: https://www.biblegateway.com/verse/en/Acts%2018:26
      There are very few apart from KJV-related translations.
      Here’s the ESV: “Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more accurately.”

      We do know something of what Priscilla and Aquila said to Apollos, who was an up-and-coming apostle on a teaching tour. Acts 18:25 says that Apollos only knew about the baptism of John. This indicates that he did not know about Christian baptism. The couple, seeing this lack, “explained to him the way of God more accurately.”

      There is no mistaking Priscilla’s involvement here. The Greek verbs and participles for “heard” (akousantes), “took aside/ received into one’s home” (proselabonto), and “explained” (exethento) are plural in the Greek of Acts 18:26b. Priscilla and Aquila both heard Apollos, they took him aside (or, they received him in their home), and they explained the way of God more accurately to him. This is what the Greek grammar of the three plural action words tells us.

      I’ve written about the meanings of proselabonto (from proslambanō) here: https://margmowczko.com/at-home-with-priscilla-and-aquila/

      I’ve written about how Luke and Paul speak about Priscilla, who is mentioned by name 6 times in the NT, here:

    2. Hi Mike.

      You claim Marg does and will make “lots of assumptions.” Are you sure YOU aren’t making some assumptions?

      There are no places in Scripture that list “qualifications for being a pastor.” That means —

      — You have to *assume* a passage that never mentions “pastors” is in fact talking about pastors.

      — You have to *assume* that such a passage directly prohibits women from the role.

      — You have to *assume* that passage is translated correctly.

      — You have to *assume* that passage’s instructions apply at all times and places, rather than as a (possibly temporary) correction to a problem at a particular time and place.

    3. The only ‘obscure version’ that Marg is using is the New Testament Greek! But to pick up on your point about 43 English translations tranlsating diakonos as servant in Romans 16:1 whilst rendering it as minister or deacon elsewhere is an interesting one. The KJV led the way with this and most modern translsations have followed.

      Here’s how the KJV translates diakonos. The word diakonos is rendered as ‘deacon’ twice (Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8), ‘servant’ once (Romans 16:1) and ‘minister’ on all other occasions (Romans 13:4; 15:8; 1 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 3:6; 6:4; 11:15, 23; Galatians 2:17; Ephesians 3:7; 6:21; Colossians 1:7, 23,25). But why? It’s the same word! In fact, diakonos doesn’t mean servant in the way that we imagine a servant. It means agent, and in the 1st century outside of the church a diakonos was a messenger or envoy on a special mission. This explains why Paul uses this word to describe himself and Apollos as they were messengers of the gospel, and Epaphras, Tychicus and Phoebe who were couriers of Paul’s letters to the churches.

    4. Conservative male scholars have repeatedly pointed out the same things as Marg about Phoebe, Julia, and Priscilla. She is hardly alone. They also point out the bias in many (most? ) English translations in deliberately translating the SAME Greek word differently if it is used of women vs men. A quick check of an interlinear by a layperson will show this, but scholars can also dig into how the word is used in 1st century and Christian usage.

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